Chicago Parent Program

Mental Health Does Not Currently Meet Criteria

The Chicago Parent Program (CPP) is a 12-session, group-based parenting program that aims to strengthen parent skills for building positive and attentive relationships with their children, setting clear and consistent expectations for children’s behavior, and managing parental stress.


The 12 sessions are divided into four units. The first unit focuses on parental attention, including child-centered time, family routines and traditions, use of praise and encouragement, and use of rewards for challenging behavior. The second unit focuses on use of parental authority, including limit-setting, follow through, and use of specific strategies, such as ignoring, distraction, and time-out. The third unit focuses on parents managing their own stress responses, including stress-reduction techniques and problem solving. The final unit focuses on synthesizing learning and providing a booster session to reinforce learning. Training includes video clips of parents interacting with their children, weekly group discussion, home practice assignments, and handouts.

Chicago Parent Program does not currently meet criteria to receive a rating because no studies of the program achieved a rating of moderate or high on design and execution.

Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed: Jun 2022


The program or service description, target population, and program or service delivery and implementation information were informed by the following sources: the program or service manual, the program or service developer’s website, and the California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare.

This information does not necessarily represent the views of the program or service developers. For more information on how this program or service was reviewed, visit the Review Process page or download the Handbook.

Target Population

CPP is intended to serve parents with children ages 2–8. It is designed to be culturally and contextually relevant for low-income, ethnically diverse families.


CPP consists of 12 sessions lasting two hours each. The first 11 sessions occur weekly, and the final booster session should be scheduled about one month after 11th session. Groups consist of about 8–15 parents led by two trained group leaders.

Location/Delivery Setting
Recommended Locations/Delivery Settings

CPP is delivered in community setting such as outpatient clinics, community-based agencies, and school settings.

Education, Certifications and Training

Group leaders must have at least a high school diploma and must complete a 2-day training workshop. A mental health background is preferred but not required. CPP fidelity assessment is required for CPP group leader certification. Group leaders must audio-record each of the 12 sessions and upload the digital files weekly to a secure Internet site for the CPP team to assess fidelity.

Program or Service Documentation
Book/Manual/Available documentation used for review

The Group Leader Manual is implemented in conjunction with the Implementation Guide.

Gross, D., Breitenstein, S. M., Bettencourt, A., Julion, W., & Garvey, C. (2021). The Chicago Parent Program: Group leader manual (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University.

The Chicago Parent Program. (2021). The Chicago Parent Program: Implementation guide.

Available languages

CPP materials are available in English or Spanish.

Other supporting materials

Preview Videos

Training and Services

Fact Sheet for Educators

For More Information



Contact Form:

Note: The details on Dosage; Location; Education, Certifications, and Training; Other Supporting Materials; and For More Information sections above are provided to website users for informational purposes only. This information is not exhaustive and may be subject to change.

Results of Search and Review Number of Studies Identified and Reviewed for Chicago Parent Program
Identified in Search 5
Eligible for Review 1
Rated High 0
Rated Moderate 0
Rated Low 1
Reviewed Only for Risk of Harm 0
Sometimes study results are reported in more than one document, or a single document reports results from multiple studies. Studies are identified below by their Prevention Services Clearinghouse study identification numbers.

Studies Rated Low

Study 14215

Gross, D., Garvey, C., Julion, W., Fogg, L., Tucker, S., & Mokros, H. (2009). Efficacy of the Chicago Parent Program with low-income African American and Latino parents of young children. Prevention Science, 10, 54-65.

Breitenstein, S. M., Fogg, L., Garvey, C., Hill, C., Resnick, B., & Gross, D. (2010). Measuring implementation fidelity in a community-based parenting intervention. Nursing Research, 59(3), 158-165.

This study received a low rating because baseline equivalence of the intervention and comparison groups was necessary and not demonstrated.

Studies Not Eligible for Review

Study 14214

Breitenstein, S. M., Gross, D., Ordaz, I., Julion, W., Garvey, C., & Ridge, A. (2007). Promoting mental health in early childhood programs serving families from low-income neighborhoods. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 13(5), 313-320.

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 14216

Gross, D., Johnson, T., Ridge, A., Garvey, C., Julion, W., Treysman, A. B., Breitenstein, S., & Fogg, L. (2011). Cost-effectiveness of childcare discounts on parent participation in preventive parent training in low-income communities. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 32(5-6), 283-298.

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 14217

Breitenstein, S. M., Gross, D., Fogg, L., Ridge, A., Garvey, C., Julion, W., & Tucker, S. (2012). The Chicago Parent Program: Comparing 1‐year outcomes for African American and Latino parents of young children. Research in Nursing & Health, 35(5), 475-489.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 14218

Gross, D. A., Belcher, H. M. E., Ofonedu, M. E., Breitenstein, S., Frick, K. D., & Chakra, B. (2014). Study protocol for a comparative effectiveness trial of two parent training programs in a fee-for-service mental health clinic: Can we improve mental health services to low-income families? Trials, 15, Article 70.

Gross, D., Belcher, H. M. E., Budhathoki, C., Ofonedu, M. E., & Uveges, M. K. (2018). Does parent training format affect treatment engagement? A randomized study of families at social risk. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 27(5), 1579-1593.

Gross, D., Belcher, H. M. E., Budhathoki, C., Ofonedu, M. E., Dutrow, D., Uveges, M. K., & Slade, E. (2019). Reducing preschool behavior problems in an urban mental health clinic: A pragmatic, non-inferiority trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 58(6), 572-581.

Bettencourt, A. F., Gross, D., & Breitenstein, S. (2019). Evaluating implementation fidelity of a school-based parenting program for low-income families. Journal of School Nursing, 35(5), 325-336.

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).