C.A.T. Project

Mental Health Does Not Currently Meet Criteria

C.A.T. Project, an adaptation of Coping Cat – Individual, is a cognitive-behavioral approach designed to treat adolescents ages 14–17 who are diagnosed with an anxiety disorder (e.g., generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, separation anxiety disorder) and their parents. Treatment is divided into two parts with eight sessions each. During the first eight sessions, the therapist teaches the adolescent how to recognize anxious feelings and thoughts, use strategies to manage their anxiety, and reward themselves for facing the anxiety. During the last eight sessions, the adolescent completes tasks designed to expose them to anxiety provoking situations based on their specific anxieties. Exposure starts with tasks that are less anxiety provoking and increases gradually to tasks that are more and more anxiety provoking. C.A.T. Project adapts the content of Coping Cat – Individual to address the sources of anxiety and social phobias adolescents may face, with corresponding differences in the exposure tasks. In between sessions, the adolescent completes exercises to aid in skill development. The therapist meets with parents for one session in each part to orient parents to the goals of treatment and teach them how to practice skills at home with their adolescent.


C.A.T. Project does not currently meet criteria to receive a rating because no studies met eligibility criteria for review.


Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed: May 2022


Sources

The program or service description, target population, and program or service delivery and implementation information were informed by the following sources: the program or service manual and the California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare.


This information does not necessarily represent the views of the program or service developers. For more information on how this program or service was reviewed, visit the Review Process page or download the Handbook.

Target Population

C.A.T. Project is designed to treat adolescents ages 14–17 who are diagnosed with an anxiety disorder (e.g., generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, separation anxiety disorder) and their parents.

Dosage

C.A.T. Project is delivered over 16 sessions. Sessions last about 50–60 minutes and typically occur weekly. The therapist meets with the adolescent individually for all sessions except sessions 4 and 9, when the therapist meets with just the parent(s).

Location/Delivery Setting
Recommended Locations/Delivery Settings

C.A.T. Project is delivered in clinical settings.

Education, Certifications and Training

Education requirements are determined by the organization implementing C.A.T. Project. The program developer provides supervised training upon request.

Program or Service Documentation
Book/Manual/Available documentation used for review

The C.A.T. Project Manual is implemented in conjunction with the C.A.T. Project Workbook.

Kendall, P. C., Choudhury, M., Hudson, J., & Webb, A. (2002). The C.A.T. Project manual for the cognitive-behavioral treatment of anxious adolescents. Workbook Publishing.

Kendall, P. C., Choudhury, M., Hudson, J., & Webb, A. (2002). C.A.T. Project workbook for the cognitive-behavioral treatment of anxious adolescents. Workbook Publishing.

Available languages

C.A.T. Project materials are available in English.

Contact Information for Developers

Website: https://www.workbookpublishing.com/anxiety.html

Email: pkendall@temple.edu 

Results of Search and Review Number of Studies Identified and Reviewed for C.A.T. Project
Identified in Search 4
Eligible for Review 0
Rated High 0
Rated Moderate 0
Rated Low 0
Reviewed Only for Risk of Harm 0
Sometimes study results are reported in more than one document, or a single document reports results from multiple studies. Studies are identified below by their Prevention Services Clearinghouse study identification numbers.




Studies Not Eligible for Review

Study 12101

Albano, A. M., Comer, J. S., Compton, S. N., Piacentini, J., Kendall, P. C., Birmaher, B., Walkup, J. T., Ginsburg, G. S., Rynn, M. A., McCracken, J., Keeton, C., Sakolsky, D. J., & Sherrill, J. T. (2018). Secondary outcomes from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study: Implications for clinical practice. Evidence-Based Practice in Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 3(1), 30-41. https://doi.org/10.1080/23794925.2017.1399485

Beidas, R. S., Lindhiem, O., Brodman, D. M., Swan, A., Carper, M., Cummings, C., Kendall, P. C., Albano, A. M., Rynn, M., Piacentini, J., McCracken, J., Compton, S. N., March, J., Walkup, J., Ginsburg, G., Keeton, C. P., Birmaher, B., Sakolsky, D., & Sherrill, J. (2014). A probabilistic and individualized approach for predicting treatment gains: An extension and application to anxiety disordered youth. Behavior Therapy, 45(1), 126-136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2013.05.001

Caporino, N. E., Brodman, D. M., Kendall, P. C., Albano, A. M., Sherrill, J., Piacentini, J., Sakolsky, D., Birmaher, B., Compton, S. N., Ginsburg, G., Rynn, M., McCracken, J., Gosch, E., Keeton, C., March, J., & Walkup, J. T. (2013). Defining treatment response and remission in child anxiety: Signal detection analysis using the pediatric anxiety rating scale. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(1), 57-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2012.10.006

Caporino, N. E., Read, K. L., Shiffrin, N., Settipani, C., Kendall, P. C., Compton, S. N., Sherrill, J., Piacentini, J., Walkup, J., Ginsburg, G., Keeton, C., Birmaher, B., Sakolsky, D., Gosch, E., & Albano, A. M. (2017). Sleep-related problems and the effects of anxiety treatment in children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 46(5), 675-685. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2015.1063429

Caporino, N. E., Sakolsky, D., Brodman, D. M., McGuire, J. F., Piacentini, J., Peris, T. S., Ginsburg, G. S., Walkup, J. T., Iyengar, S., Kendall, P. C., & Birmaher, B. (2017). Establishing clinical cutoffs for response and remission on the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 56(8), 696-702. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2017.05.018

Cervin, M., Storch, E. A., Piacentini, J., Birmaher, B., Compton, S. N., Albano, A. M., Gosch, E., Walkup, J. T., & Kendall, P. C. (2020). Symptom-specific effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy, sertraline, and their combination in a large randomized controlled trial of pediatric anxiety disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 61(4), 492-502. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13124

Compton, S. N., Walkup, J. T., Albano, A. M., Piacentini, J. C., Birmaher, B., Sherrill, J. T., Ginsburg, G. S., Rynn, M. A., McCracken, J. T., Waslick, B. D., Iyengar, S., Kendall, P. C., & March, J. S. (2010). Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS): Rationale, design, and methods. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 4(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1753-2000-4-1

Compton, S. N., Peris, T. S., Almirall, D., Birmaher, B., Sherrill, J., Kendall, P. C., March, J. S., Gosch, E. A., Ginsburg, G. S., Rynn, M. A., Piacentini, J. C., McCracken, J. T., Keeton, C. P., Suveg, C. M., Aschenbrand, S. G., Sakolsky, D., Iyengar, S., Walkup, J. T., & Albano, A. M. (2014). Predictors and moderators of treatment response in childhood anxiety disorders: results from the CAMS trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(2), 212-224. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035458

Crawley, S. A., Caporino, N. E., Birmaher, B., Ginsburg, G., Piacentini, J., Albano, A. M., Sherrill, J., Sakolsky, D., Compton, S. N., Rynn, M., McCracken, J., Gosch, E., Keeton, C., March, J., Walkup, J. T., & Kendall, P. C. (2014). Somatic complaints in anxious youth. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 45(4), 398-407. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-013-0410-x

Cummings, C. M., Caporino, N. E., Settipani, C. A., Read, K. L., Compton, S. N., March, J., Sherrill, J., Piacentini, J., McCracken, J., Walkup, J. T., Ginsburg, G., Albano, A. M., Rynn, M., Birmaher, B., Sakolsky, D., Gosch, E., Keeton, C., & Kendall, P. C. (2013). The therapeutic relationship in cognitive-behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy for anxious youth. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81(5), 859-864. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033294

Gaynor, S. T. (2017). Temporal precedence in the identification of mediators of change: A brief comment on "Mediators of change in the child/adolescent multimodal treatment study" (Kendall et al., 2016). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 85(1), 77-79. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000108

Ginsburg, G. S., Kendall, P. C., Sakolsky, D., Compton, S. N., Piacentini, J., Albano, A. M., Walkup, J. T., Sherrill, J., Coffey, K. A., Rynn, M. A., Keeton, C. P., McCracken, J. T., Bergman, L., Iyengar, S., Birmaher, B., & March, J. (2011). Remission after acute treatment in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders: Findings from the CAMS. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(6), 806-813. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025933

Gonzalez, A., Peris, T. S., Vreeland, A., Kiff, C. J., Kendall, P. C., Compton, S. N., Albano, A. M., Birmaher, B., Ginsburg, G. S., Keeton, C. P., March, J., McCracken, J., Rynn, M., Sherrill, J., Walkup, J. T., & Piacentini, J. (2015). Parental anxiety as a predictor of medication and CBT response for anxious youth. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 46(1), 84-93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-014-0454-6

Gordon-Hollingsworth, A. T., Becker, E. M., Ginsburg, G. S., Keeton, C., Compton, S. N., Birmaher, B. B., Sakolsky, D. J., Piacentini, J., Albano, A. M., Kendall, P. C., Suveg, C. M., & March, J. S. (2015). Anxiety disorders in Caucasian and African American children: A comparison of clinical characteristics, treatment process variables, and treatment outcomes. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 46(5), 643-655. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-014-0507-x

Hale, A. E., Ginsburg, G. S., Chan, G., Kendall, P. C., McCracken, J. T., Sakolsky, D., Birmaher, B., Compton, S. N., Albano, A. M., & Walkup, J. T. (2018). Mediators of treatment outcomes for anxious children and adolescents: The role of somatic symptoms. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 47(1), 94-104. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2017.1280804

Halldorsdottir, T., Ollendick, T. H., Ginsburg, G., Sherrill, J., Kendall, P. C., Walkup, J., Sakolsky, D. J., & Piacentini, J. (2015). Treatment outcomes in anxious youth with and without comorbid ADHD in the CAMS. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 44(6), 985-991. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2014.952008

Hudson, J. L. (2009). Short term CBT and sertraline, alone or in combination, reduce anxiety in children and adolescents. Evidence-Based Mental Health, 12(3), 88-88. https://doi.org/10.1136/ebmh.12.3.88

Keeton, C. P., Ginsburg, G. S., Drake, K. L., Sakolsky, D., Kendall, P. C., Birmaher, B., Albano, A. M., March, J. S., Rynn, M., Piacentini, J., & Walkup, J. T. (2013). Benefits of child-focused anxiety treatments for parents and family functioning. Depression and Anxiety, 30(9), 865-872. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22055

Keeton, C. P., Caporino, N. E., Kendall, P. C., Iyengar, S., Lee, P., Peris, T., Sakolsky, D., Piacentini, J., Compton, S. N., Albano, A. M., Birmaher, B., & Ginsburg, G. S. (2019). Mood and suicidality outcomes 3-11 years following pediatric anxiety disorder treatment. Depression and Anxiety, 36(10), 930-940. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22944

Kendall, P. C., Cummings, C. M., Villabø, M. A., Narayanan, M. K., Treadwell, K., Birmaher, B., Compton, S., Piacentini, J., Sherrill, J., Walkup, J., Gosch, E., Keeton, C., Ginsburg, G., Suveg, C., & Albano, A. M. (2016). Mediators of change in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Treatment Study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0039773

Makover, H. B., Kendall, P. C., Olino, T., Carper, M. M., Albano, A. M., Piacentini, J., Peris, T., Langley, A. K., Gonzalez, A., Ginsburg, G. S., Compton, S., Birmaher, B., Sakolsky, D., Keeton, C., & Walkup, J. (2020). Mediators of youth anxiety outcomes 3 to 12 years after treatment. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 70, Article 102188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102188

McGuire, J. F., Caporino, N. E., Palitz, S. A., Kendall, P. C., Albano, A. M., Ginsburg, G. S., Birmaher, B., Walkup, J. T., & Piacentini, J. (2019). Integrating evidence-based assessment into clinical practice for pediatric anxiety disorders. Depression and Anxiety, 36(8), 744-752. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22900

Nail, J. E., Christofferson, J., Ginsburg, G. S., Drake, K., Kendall, P. C., McCracken, J. T., Birmaher, B., Walkup, J. T., Compton, S. N., Keeton, C., & Sakolsky, D. (2015). Academic impairment and impact of treatments among youth with anxiety disorders. Child & Youth Care Forum, 44(3), 327-342. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-014-9290-x

Norris, L. A., Rifkin, L. S., Olino, T. M., Piacentini, J., Albano, A. M., Birmaher, B., Ginsburg, G., Walkup, J., Compton, S. N., Gosch, E., & Kendall, P. C. (2019). Multi-informant expectancies and treatment outcomes for anxiety in youth. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 50(6), 1002-1010. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-019-00900-w

Peris, T. S., Compton, S. N., Kendall, P. C., Birmaher, B., Sherrill, J., March, J., Gosch, E., Ginsburg, G., Rynn, M., McCracken, J. T., Keeton, C. P., Sakolsky, D., Suveg, C., Aschenbrand, S., Almirall, D., Iyengar, S., Walkup, J. T., Albano, A. M., & Piacentini, J. (2015). Trajectories of change in youth anxiety during cognitive-behavior therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83(2), 239-252. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038402

Peris, T. S., Caporino, N. E., O'Rourke, S., Kendall, P. C., Walkup, J. T., Albano, A. M., Bergman, R. L., McCracken, J. T., Birmaher, B., Ginsburg, G. S., Sakolsky, D., Piacentini, J., & Compton, S. N. (2017). Therapist-reported features of exposure tasks that predict differential treatment outcomes for youth with anxiety. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 56(12), 1043-1052. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2017.10.001

Piacentini, J., Bennett, S., Compton, S. N., Kendall, P. C., Birmaher, B., Albano, A. M., March, J., Sherrill, J., Sakolsky, D., Ginsburg, G., Rynn, M., Bergman, R. L., Gosch, E., Waslick, B., Iyengar, S., McCracken, J., & Walkup, J. (2014). 24- and 36-week outcomes for the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(3), 297-310. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2013.11.010

Podell, J. L., Kendall, P. C., Gosch, E. A., Compton, S. N., March, J. S., Albano, A.-M., Rynn, M. A., Walkup, J. T., Sherrill, J. T., Ginsburg, G. S., Keeton, C. P., Birmaher, B., & Piacentini, J. C. (2013). Therapist factors and outcomes in CBT for anxiety in youth. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 44(2), 89-98. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031700

Ryan, N. D. (2014). Treating anxiety in youth: Does maintenance treatment maintain? Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(3), 269-270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2013.11.008

Rynn, M. A., Walkup, J. T., Compton, S. N., Sakolsky, D. J., Sherrill, J. T., Shen, S., Kendall, P. C., McCracken, J., Albano, A. M., Piacentini, J., Riddle, M. A., Keeton, C., Waslick, B., Chrisman, A., Iyengar, S., March, J. S., & Birmaher, B. (2015). Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study: Evaluating safety. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 54(3), 180-190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2014.12.015

Schleider, J. L., Ginsburg, G. S., Keeton, C. P., Weisz, J. R., Birmaher, B., Kendall, P. C., Piacentini, J., Sherrill, J., & Walkup, J. T. (2015). Parental psychopathology and treatment outcome for anxious youth: Roles of family functioning and caregiver strain. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83(1), 213-224. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037935

Strawn, J. R., Dobson, E. T., Mills, J. A., Cornwall, G. J., Sakolsky, D., Birmaher, B., Compton, S. N., Piacentini, J., McCracken, J. T., Ginsburg, G. S., Kendall, P. C., Walkup, J. T., Albano, A. M., & Rynn, M. A. (2017). Placebo response in pediatric anxiety disorders: Results from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 27(6), 501-508. https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2016.0198

Taylor, J. H., Lebowitz, E. R., Jakubovski, E., Coughlin, C. G., Silverman, W. K., & Bloch, M. H. (2018). Monotherapy insufficient in severe anxiety? Predictors and moderators in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 47(2), 266-281. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2017.1371028

Walkup, J. T., Compton, S. N., & Kendall, P. C. (2009). 'Behavior therapy, sertraline, or both in childhood anxiety': Commentary reply. The New England Journal of Medicine, 360(23), 2475-2477. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc090139

Zehgeer, A., Ginsburg, G. S., Lee, P., Birmaher, B., Walkup, J., Kendall, P. C., Sakolsky, D., & Peris, T. (2018). Pharmacotherapy adherence for pediatric anxiety disorders: Predictors and relation to child outcomes. Child & Youth Care Forum, 47(5), 633-644. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-018-9459-9

Ginsburg, G. S., Becker, E. M., Keeton, C. P., Sakolsky, D., Piacentini, J., Albano, A. M., Compton, S. N., Iyengar, S., Sullivan, K., Caporino, N., Peris, T., Birmaher, B., Rynn, M., March, J., & Kendall, P. C. (2014). Naturalistic follow-up of youths treated for pediatric anxiety disorders. JAMA Psychiatry, 71(3), 310-318. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.4186

Peris, T. S., Sugar, C. A., Rozenman, M. S., Walkup, J. T., Albano, A. M., Compton, S., Sakolsky, D., Ginsburg, G., Keeton, C., Kendall, P. C., McCracken, J. T., & Piacentini, J. (2021). Long-term service use among youth previously treated for anxiety disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 60(4), 501-512. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2020.07.911

Ginsburg, G. S., Becker-Haimes, E. M., Keeton, C., Kendall, P. C., Iyengar, S., Sakolsky, D., Albano, A. M., Peris, T., Compton, S. N., & Piacentini, J. (2018). Results from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Extended Long-Term Study (CAMELS): Primary anxiety outcomes. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 57(7), 471-480. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2018.03.017

Haugland, B. S. M., Haaland, Å. T., Baste, V., Bjaastad, J. F., Hoffart, A., Rapee, R. M., Raknes, S., Himle, J. A., Husabø, E., & Wergeland, G. J. (2020). Effectiveness of brief and standard school-based cognitive-behavioral interventions for adolescents with anxiety: A randomized noninferiority study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 59(4), 552-564. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2019.12.003

Wu, M. S., Caporino, N. E., Peris, T. S., Pérez, J., Thamrin, H., Albano, A. M., Kendall, P. C., Walkup, J. T., Birmaher, B., Compton, S. N., & Piacentini, J. (2020). The impact of treatment expectations on exposure process and treatment outcome in childhood anxiety disorders. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 48(1), 79-89. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-019-00574-x

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 12188

Burkhouse, K. L., Kujawa, A., Hosseini, B., Klumpp, H., Fitzgerald, K. D., Langenecker, S. A., Monk, C. S., & Phan, K. L. (2018). Anterior cingulate activation to implicit threat before and after treatment for pediatric anxiety disorders. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 84(Part A), 250-256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2018.03.013

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 14317

Bunford, N., Kujawa, A., Fitzgerald, K. D., Swain, J. E., Hanna, G. L., Koschmann, E., Simpson, D., Connolly, S., Monk, C. S., & Phan, K. L. (2017). Neural reactivity to angry faces predicts treatment response in pediatric anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 45(2), 385-395. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-016-0168-2

Burkhouse, K. L., Kujawa, A., Klumpp, H., Fitzgerald, K. D., Monk, C. S., & Phan, K. L. (2017). Neural correlates of explicit and implicit emotion processing in relation to treatment response in pediatric anxiety. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 58(5), 546-554. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12658

Kujawa, A., Swain, J. E., Hanna, G. L., Koschmann, E., Simpson, D., Connolly, S., Fitzgerald, K. D., Monk, C. S., & Phan, K. L. (2016). Prefrontal reactivity to social signals of threat as a predictor of treatment response in anxious youth. Neuropsychopharmacology, 41(8), 1983-1990. https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2015.368

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 14319

Palitz, S. A., Rifkin, L. S., Norris, L. A., Knepley, M., Fleischer, N. J., Steinberg, L., & Kendall, P. C. (2019). But what will the results be?: Learning to tolerate uncertainty is associated with treatment-produced gains. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 68, Article 102146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2019.102146

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).