Early Pathways

Mental Health In-home Parent Skill-Based Does Not Currently Meet Criteria

Early Pathways is an in-home trauma-informed therapy program designed to serve families living in poverty who have young children with significant behavior problems.

 

Early Pathways practitioners focus treatment around five core elements: (1) strengthening the parent-child relationship through child-led play, practices enhancing parents’ awareness of and responsiveness to the child’s needs, and other nurturing activities; (2) helping parents form developmentally appropriate expectations for child behavior; (3) teaching parents cognitive strategies to respond calmly and thoughtfully to challenging child behaviors; (4) teaching parents positive reinforcement and listening sessions skills to strengthen children’s pro-social behaviors and compliance; and (5) teaching parents limit-setting strategies to reduce children’s challenging behaviors. Practitioners aim to use trauma-informed practices to guide all aspects of the program. For example, practitioners help families create a safe environment, identify sources of support, and developing a trauma narrative. Practitioners also teach trauma-informed parenting strategies within each core element (e.g., trauma-informed limit setting).


Early Pathways does not currently meet criteria to receive a rating because no studies of the program achieved a rating of moderate or high on design and execution.


Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed: Jun 2022


Sources

The program or service description, target population, and program or service delivery and implementation information were informed by the following sources: the program or service manual and the program or service developer’s website.


This information does not necessarily represent the views of the program or service developers. For more information on how this program or service was reviewed, visit the Review Process page or download the Handbook.

Target Population

Early Pathways is designed to serve families with children ages 1–5 who have significant behavioral or emotional difficulties or who have experienced potentially traumatic events. The program targets families living in poverty while also serving clients across the socio-economic spectrum.

Dosage

Early Pathways is typically delivered in 8–16 weekly sessions. The number of sessions is based on the individual needs of the child and parent. Each session lasts for 1 hour, or longer if needed.

Location/Delivery Setting
Recommended Locations/Delivery Settings

Early Pathways is delivered in participants’ homes.

Education, Certifications and Training

Early Pathways is delivered by mental health practitioners. Practitioners typically have at least a master’s degree in a mental health field or are actively working toward a master’s degree. Practitioners without these qualifications may deliver the intervention under the supervision of an experienced clinician until appropriate mastery is demonstrated.

Early Pathways offers a training program to become a certified Early Pathways provider. The certification process requires practitioners to attend a 2-day training workshop, participate in 12 consultation sessions with Early Pathways trainers, and submit client assessments and reports during the consultation process.

Early Pathways also offers a 1-day informational workshop for parents, caregivers, and professionals who work with children across disciplines to provide an in-depth understanding of challenging behaviors and stress/trauma-related concerns in young children birth to age 6.

Program or Service Documentation
Book/Manual/Available documentation used for review

Fox, R. A. (2018). Early Pathways: Home-based mental health services for very young children in poverty. Penfield Children’s Center.

Available languages

Early Pathways materials are available in English and Spanish.

Other supporting materials

Treatment Model

Training and Certifications

Contact Information for Developers

Website: www.earlypathways.org

Phone: (414) 345-6386

Email: earlypathways@penfieldchildren.org

Results of Search and Review Number of Studies Identified and Reviewed for Early Pathways
Identified in Search 11
Eligible for Review 1
Rated High 0
Rated Moderate 0
Rated Low 1
Reviewed Only for Risk of Harm 0
Sometimes study results are reported in more than one document, or a single document reports results from multiple studies. Studies are identified below by their Prevention Services Clearinghouse study identification numbers.


Studies Rated Low

Study 14234

Love, J. R., & Fox, R. A. (2019). Home-based parent child therapy for young traumatized children living in poverty: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma, 12, 73-83. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40653-017-0170-z

This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.


Studies Not Eligible for Review

Study 14226

Fox, R. A., & Holtz, C. A. (2009). Treatment outcomes for toddlers with behavior problems from families in poverty. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 14(4), 183-189. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-3588.2009.00527.x

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 14227

Holtz, C. A., Carrasco, J. M., Mattek, R. J., & Fox, R. A. (2009). Behavior problems in toddlers with and without developmental delays: Comparison of treatment outcomes. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 31(4), 292-311. https://doi.org/10.1080/07317100903311018

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 14228

Carassco, J. M., & Fox, R. A. (2012). Varying treatment intensity in a home-based parent and child therapy program for families living in poverty: A randomized clinic trial. Journal of Community Psychology, 40(5), 621-630. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.21492

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 14229

Fox, R. A., Mattek, R., & Gresl, B. (2013). Evaluation of a university-community partnership to provide home-based, mental health services for children from families living in poverty. Community Mental Health Journal, 49, 599-610. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-012-9545-7

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 14230

Gresl, B. L., Fox, R. A., & Fleischmann, A. (2014). Home-based parent-child therapy in low-income African American, Caucasian, and Latino families: A comparative examination of treatment outcomes. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 36(1), 33-50. https://doi.org/10.1080/07317107.2014.878193

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 14231

Fung, M., P., Fox, R. A., & Harris, S. E. (2014). Treatment outcomes for at-risk young children with behavior problems: Toward a new definition of success. Journal of Social Service Research, 40(5), 623-641. https://doi.org/10.1080/01488376.2014.915283

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 14232

Fung, M. P., & Fox, R. A. (2014). The culturally-adapted Early Pathways program for young Latino children in poverty: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Latina/o Psychology, 2(3), 131-145. https://doi.org/10.1037/lat0000019

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 14233

Harris, S. E., Fox, R. A., & Love, J. R. (2015). Early Pathways therapy for young children in poverty: A randomized controlled trial. Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation, 6(1), 3-17. https://doi.org/10.1177/2150137815573628

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 14235

Solís-Cámara R, P., Fox, R. A., & Nicholson, B. C. (2000). Parenting young children: Comparison of a psychoeducational program in Mexico and the United States. Early Child Development and Care, 163(1), 115-124. https://doi.org/10.1080/0300443001630108

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 14236

McHugh, E., & Starke, M. (2019). Investigating feasibility and fidelity of the Parenting Young Children program in Sweden. Evaluation and Program Planning, 80, Article 101702. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2019.101702

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).