ezPARENT

Mental Health Does Not Currently Meet Criteria

ezPARENT is a self-administered app-based adaptation of the Chicago Parent Program that aims to promote positive parenting skills and to prevent behavior problems in children ages 2–8.

 

Parents complete six 1-hour modules sequentially. Modules 1 and 2 focus on building parents’ positive relationships with their children. Modules 3, 4, and 5 cover child behavior management skills. Module 6 addresses stress management and problem-solving skills. Each module includes video clips of parents interacting with their children, knowledge questions to check understanding, interactive activities, and practice assignments.


ezPARENT does not currently meet criteria to receive a rating because no studies of the program that achieved a rating of moderate or high on design and execution demonstrated a favorable effect on a target outcome.


Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed: Jun 2022


Sources

The program or service description, target population, and program or service delivery and implementation information were informed by the following sources: the program or service manual, the program or service developer’s website, and the California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare.


This information does not necessarily represent the views of the program or service developers. For more information on how this program or service was reviewed, visit the Review Process page or download the Handbook.

Target Population

ezPARENT is intended to serve parents of children ages 2–8. It is designed to be culturally and contextually relevant for low-income, ethnically diverse families.

Dosage

ezPARENT consists of six modules that typically take 1 hour each to complete.

Location/Delivery Setting
Recommended Locations/Delivery Settings

ezPARENT is self-administered via an app and can be completed at home or in a variety of community settings.

Education, Certifications and Training

ezPARENT is self-completed and has no training, education, or certification requirements.

Program or Service Documentation
Book/Manual/Available documentation used for review

Breitenstein, S., Gross, D., Bettencourt, A., & Greene, M. (2021). ezPARENT [Electronic software]. The Ohio State University.

Available languages

ezPARENT materials are available in English.

Contact Information for Developers

Website: https://www.chicagoparentprogram.org/

Email: CPPinfo@chicagoparentprogram.org

Contact Form: https://www.chicagoparentprogram.org/component/content/article?id=70

Results of Search and Review Number of Studies Identified and Reviewed for ezPARENT
Identified in Search 4
Eligible for Review 2
Rated High 1
Rated Moderate 1
Rated Low 0
Reviewed Only for Risk of Harm 0
Outcome Effect Size Effect Size more info
and Implied Percentile Effect Implied Percentile Effect more info
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings
Child well-being: Behavioral and emotional functioning 0.02
0
2 (28) 342 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 28
Unfavorable: 0
Adult well-being: Positive parenting practices -0.03
-1
2 (29) 342 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 28
Unfavorable: 1
Adult well-being: Parent/caregiver mental or emotional health -0.02
0
2 (5) 342 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 5
Unfavorable: 0
Adult well-being: Family functioning 0.04
1
1 (3) 263 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 3
Unfavorable: 0

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group.

Outcome Effect Size Effect Size more info
and Implied Percentile Effect Implied Percentile Effect more info
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings Months after treatment
when outcome measured
Months after treatment when outcome measured more info
Child well-being: Behavioral and emotional functioning 0.02
0
2 (28) 342 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 28
Unfavorable: 0
-
Breitenstein, 2016a
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Problem Scale -0.14
-5
- 79 - 0
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Problem Scale 0.01
0
- 79 - 3
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Intensity Scale 0.00
0
- 79 - 0
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Intensity Scale 0.18
6
- 79 - 3
Breitenstein, 2021
Parenting Stress Index – Short Form: Difficult Child 0.13
5
- 255 - 0
Parenting Stress Index – Short Form: Difficult Child 0.01
0
- 263 - 3
Parenting Stress Index – Short Form: Difficult Child 0.01
0
- 256 - 9
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Intensity Scale -0.08
-3
- 255 - 0
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Intensity Scale 0.04
1
- 263 - 3
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Intensity Scale -0.12
-4
- 256 - 9
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Problem Scale 0.01
0
- 254 - 0
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Problem Scale 0.05
2
- 263 - 3
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Problem Scale 0.05
2
- 256 - 9
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Emotional Symptoms 0.01
0
- 255 - 0
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Emotional Symptoms -0.04
-1
- 263 - 3
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Emotional Symptoms -0.08
-3
- 256 - 9
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Conduct Problems 0.07
2
- 255 - 0
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Conduct Problems 0.11
4
- 263 - 3
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Conduct Problems 0.08
3
- 256 - 9
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Hyperactivity/Inattention 0.19
7
- 254 - 0
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Hyperactivity/Inattention -0.08
-3
- 263 - 3
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Hyperactivity/Inattention -0.11
-4
- 256 - 9
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Peer Relationship Problems 0.09
3
- 254 - 0
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Peer Relationship Problems 0.03
1
- 263 - 3
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Peer Relationship Problems -0.02
0
- 256 - 9
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Prosocial Behaviour 0.16
6
- 253 - 0
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Prosocial Behaviour -0.06
-2
- 263 - 3
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Prosocial Behaviour 0.14
5
- 256 - 9
Adult well-being: Positive parenting practices -0.03
-1
2 (29) 342 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 28
Unfavorable: 1
-
Breitenstein, 2016a
Parenting Questionnaire: Warmth 0.06
2
- 79 - 0
Parenting Questionnaire: Warmth 0.30
11
- 79 - 3
Parenting Questionnaire: Corporal Punishment -0.12
-4
- 79 - 0
Parenting Questionnaire: Corporal Punishment 0.14
5
- 79 - 3
Parenting Questionnaire: Follow Through 0.24
9
- 79 - 0
Parenting Questionnaire: Follow Through 0.16
6
- 79 - 3
Toddler Care Questionnaire -0.08
-3
- 79 - 0
Toddler Care Questionnaire 0.13
5
- 79 - 3
Breitenstein, 2021
Parenting Questionnaire: Warmth -0.08
-3
- 253 - 0
Parenting Questionnaire: Warmth -0.02
0
- 263 - 3
Parenting Questionnaire: Warmth -0.16
-6
- 256 - 9
Parenting Questionnaire: Follow Through -0.16
-6
- 255 - 0
Parenting Questionnaire: Follow Through 0.08
3
- 263 - 3
Parenting Questionnaire: Follow Through 0.07
2
- 256 - 9
Parenting Questionnaire: Corporal Punishment -0.16
-6
- 243 - 0
Parenting Questionnaire: Corporal Punishment 0.05
2
- 263 - 3
Parenting Questionnaire: Corporal Punishment -0.06
-2
- 256 - 9
Parenting Young Children: Supporting Good Behavior -0.23
-9
- 255 - 0
Parenting Young Children: Supporting Good Behavior -0.15
-6
- 263 - 3
Parenting Young Children: Supporting Good Behavior -0.31 *
-12
- 256 - 9
Parenting Young Children: Setting Limits -0.05
-1
- 255 - 0
Parenting Young Children: Setting Limits -0.05
-2
- 263 - 3
Parenting Young Children: Setting Limits -0.10
-3
- 256 - 9
Parenting Young Children: Proactive Parenting 0.00
0
- 255 - 0
Parenting Young Children: Proactive Parenting -0.08
-3
- 263 - 3
Parenting Young Children: Proactive Parenting -0.15
-5
- 256 - 9
Parenting Sense of Competence: Total Score -0.02
0
- 253 - 0
Parenting Sense of Competence: Total Score 0.11
4
- 263 - 3
Parenting Sense of Competence: Total Score 0.07
2
- 256 - 9
Adult well-being: Parent/caregiver mental or emotional health -0.02
0
2 (5) 342 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 5
Unfavorable: 0
-
Breitenstein, 2016a
Parenting Stress Index – Short Form: Total Stress -0.01
0
- 79 - 0
Parenting Stress Index – Short Form: Total Stress 0.19
7
- 79 - 3
Breitenstein, 2021
Parenting Stress Index – Short Form: Parental Distress -0.09
-3
- 255 - 0
Parenting Stress Index – Short Form: Parental Distress 0.01
0
- 263 - 3
Parenting Stress Index – Short Form: Parental Distress -0.07
-2
- 256 - 9
Adult well-being: Family functioning 0.04
1
1 (3) 263 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 3
Unfavorable: 0
-
Breitenstein, 2021
Parenting Stress Index – Short Form: Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction 0.10
4
- 254 - 0
Parenting Stress Index – Short Form: Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction 0.01
0
- 263 - 3
Parenting Stress Index – Short Form: Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction 0.02
0
- 256 - 9

*p <.05

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group. Effect sizes and implied percentile effects were calculated by the Prevention Services Clearinghouse as described in the Handbook of Standards and Procedures, Section 5.10.4 and may not align with effect sizes reported in individual publications.

Only publications with eligible contrasts that met design and execution standards are included in the individual study findings table.

Full citations for the studies shown in the table are available in the "Studies Reviewed" section.

Sometimes study results are reported in more than one document, or a single document reports results from multiple studies. Studies are identified below by their Prevention Services Clearinghouse study identification numbers.

Studies Rated High

Study 14220

Breitenstein, S. M., Fogg, L., Ocampo, E. V., Acosta, D. I., & Gross, D. (2016a). Parent use and efficacy of a self-administered, tablet-based parent training intervention: A randomized controlled trial. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 4(2), Article e36. https://doi.org/10.2196/mhealth.5202

Breitenstein, S. M., Brager, J., Ocampo, E. V., & Fogg, L. (2017). Engagement and adherence with ezPARENT, an mHealth parent-training program promoting child well-being. Child Maltreatment, 22(4), 295–304. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559517725402


Studies Rated Moderate

Study 14221

Breitenstein, S. M., Schoeny, M., Risser, H., & Johnson, T. (2016b). A study protocol testing the implementation, efficacy, and cost effectiveness of the ezParent program in pediatric primary care. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 50, 229–237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2016.08.017

Breitenstein, S. M., Laurent, S., Pabalan, L., Risser, H. J., Roper, P., Saba, M. T., & Schoeny, M. (2019). Implementation findings from an effectiveness-implementation trial of tablet-based parent training in pediatric primary care. Families, Systems & Health, 37(4), 282–290. https://doi.org/10.1037/fsh0000447

Breitenstein, S. M., Fehrenbacher, C., Holod, A. F., & Schoeny, M. E. (2021). A randomized trial of digitally delivered, self-administered parent training in primary care: Effects on parenting and child behavior. Journal of Pediatrics, 231, 207-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.12.016




Studies Not Eligible for Review

Study 14219

Breitenstein, S. M., & Gross, D. (2013). Web-based delivery of a preventive parent training intervention: A feasibility study. Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 26(2), 149-157. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcap.12031

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 14222

Brager, J., Breitenstein, S. M., Miller, H., & Gross, D. (2021). Low-income parents' perceptions of and engagement with a digital behavioral parent training program: A mixed-methods study. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 27(1), 33-43. https://doi.org/10.1177/1078390319872534 

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).