Narrative Exposure Therapy

Mental Health Promising

Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET) is a short-term mental health program designed for child, adolescent, and adult survivors of traumatic experiences such as childhood abuse, war, torture, sexual assault, rape, and other forms of violence. Goals of NET include reducing clinical symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, suicidality, substance use, self-harm, aggressive acting out, guilt, and shame. NET also aims to improve functioning at social, occupational, scholastic, and emotional levels. 

 

Therapists provide NET to patients individually. The first session includes an assessment of the patient’s mental health status, including screening for posttraumatic stress disorder. In addition, the therapist presents psychoeducation to describe and normalize possible trauma reactions and explain the NET therapeutic procedure. The second session introduces the concept of the “lifeline,” an active chronological reconstruction of autobiographical memories. In the lifeline exercise the patient places stones and flowers on a string or a rope, as symbols of positive and negative life events in chronological order. In the third session, the patient starts narrating their lifeline and the therapist documents the patient’s narration. The therapist guides patients through discussions of traumatic events with the aim of contextualizing their sensory, cognitive, affective, and bodily memories of trauma. The therapist also helps the patient re-evaluate behavior and thought patterns such as cognitive distortions and automatic thoughts. The patient reprocesses traumatic events until completion and closure. The final session involves rereading and signing the lifeline document. When therapists administer NET to children (KIDNET), the therapist may also incorporate theater, play, and creative media.  


NET is rated as a promising practice because at least one study achieved a rating of moderate or high on study design and execution and demonstrated a favorable effect on a target outcome.


Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed: Jul 2023


Sources

The program or service description, target population, and program or service delivery and implementation information were informed by the following sources: the program or service manual, the program or service developer’s website, the California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare, and the studies reviewed. 


This information does not necessarily represent the views of the program or service developers. For more information on how this program or service was reviewed, visit the Review Process page or download the Handbook.

Target Population

NET is designed for child, adolescent, or adult survivors of traumatic experiences such as childhood abuse, war, torture, sexual assault, rape, and other forms of violence.

Dosage

NET consists of 4–12 sessions of 90–120 minutes each that occur at least once every week. The number of sessions depends on the intensity and complexity of the trauma.  

Location/Delivery Setting
Recommended Locations/Delivery Settings

Therapists deliver NET in a variety of community settings, including hospitals, outpatient clinics, community-based organizations, or school settings. 

Location/Delivery Settings Observed in the Research

  • Hospital/Medical Center
  • Mental Health Center, Treatment Center, Therapist Office

Education, Certifications and Training

NET therapists can be professional counselors or trained lay counselors, such as teachers or community members. Before practicing NET, therapists participate in 3 days of training. An initial two-day Fundamentals training covers the theoretical and practical underpinnings of NET and consists of three steps with lectures and demonstrations providing an overview of how NET is delivered. Step 1 introduces the checklists and assessment tools NET uses to establish the nature of the traumatic events that the individual has experienced and to understand how those events affect psychological functioning. Step 2 describes the psychoeducation and lifeline exercise in NET. Step 3 describes how to guide a patient through processing traumatic events, as well as how to anchor positive events within the narrative account of the individual’s whole life (i.e., the lifeline). The training also discusses how to conduct the final re-reading of the lifeline narrative and options for the end of treatment. Following the initial two-day training, participants complete one additional NET training day where they observe a demonstration of NET and practice administering NET in small groups. 

Program or Service Documentation
Book/Manual/Available documentation used for review

Schauer, M., Neuner, F., & Elbert T. (2011). Narrative Exposure Therapy: A short-term treatment for traumatic stress disorders (2nd ed.). Hogrefe Publishing. 

Available languages

The NET manual is available in English, Dutch, Farsi, French, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, and Slovak.

Other supporting materials

NET Overview 

NET Events and Trainings 

For More Information

Website: https://www.net-institute.org/  

Email: info@net-institute.org  


Note: The details on Dosage; Location; Education, Certifications, and Training; Other Supporting Materials; and For More Information sections above are provided to website users for informational purposes only. This information is not exhaustive and may be subject to change.

Results of Search and Review Number of Studies Identified and Reviewed for Narrative Exposure Therapy
Identified in Search 41
Eligible for Review 19
Rated High 3
Rated Moderate 3
Rated Low 13
Reviewed Only for Risk of Harm 0
Outcome Effect Size Effect Size more info
and Implied Percentile Effect Implied Percentile Effect more info
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings
Child well-being: Behavioral and emotional functioning 0.36
13
2 (11) 91 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 11
Unfavorable: 0
Adult well-being: Parent/caregiver mental or emotional health 0.64
23
4 (20) 221 Favorable: 9
No Effect: 11
Unfavorable: 0
Adult well-being: Family functioning 0.05
1
2 (4) 56 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 4
Unfavorable: 0
Adult well-being: Parent/caregiver physical health 0.41
15
1 (1) 111 Favorable: 1
No Effect: 0
Unfavorable: 0

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group.

Outcome Effect Size Effect Size more info
and Implied Percentile Effect Implied Percentile Effect more info
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings Months after treatment
when outcome measured
Months after treatment when outcome measured more info
Child well-being: Behavioral and emotional functioning 0.36
13
2 (11) 91 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 11
Unfavorable: 0
-
Study 14158 - NET vs. Waitlist (Ertl, 2011)
Clinician-Administered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale (PTSD Symptom Load) 0.33
12
- 54 - 6
Clinician-Administered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale (PTSD Symptom Load) 0.52
19
- 53 - 12
Clinician-Administered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale (PTSD Symptom Load) 0.39
15
- 54 - 3
Study 14170 - NET vs. Treatment As Usual (RCT) (Peltonen, 2019)
Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale – 13: Total Score 0.51
19
- 35 - 0
Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale – 13: Intrusion 0.42
16
- 37 - 0
Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale – 13: Avoidance 0.30
11
- 36 - 0
Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children -0.03
-1
- 19 - 0
Resilience -0.11
-4
- 22 - 0
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Total Difficulties (Child Report) -0.10
-3
- 20 - 0
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Total Difficulties (Guardian Report) 0.04
1
- 18 - 0
Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (% Above Clinical Cutoff CRIES-13 > 16) 0.80
28
- 35 - 0
Adult well-being: Parent/caregiver mental or emotional health 0.64
23
4 (20) 221 Favorable: 9
No Effect: 11
Unfavorable: 0
-
Study 14159 - NET plus Treatment As Usual vs. Treatment As Usual (Fan, 2021)
PTSD Checklist – Civilian Version: Total Score 1.39 *
41
- 111 - 0
Self-Rating Depression Scale – Chinese 0.32
12
- 111 - 0
Self-Rating Anxiety Scale – Chinese -0.13
-4
- 111 - 0
PTSD Checklist – Civilian Version: Reexperiencing 1.21 *
38
- 111 - 0
PTSD Checklist – Civilian Version: Avoidance/Numbing 0.59 *
22
- 111 - 0
PTSD Checklist – Civilian Version: Hyperarousal 0.79 *
28
- 111 - 0
Study 14180 - NET vs. Treatment As Usual (Orang, 2018)
PTSD Symptom Scale – Interview Version 0.68
25
- 34 - 3
Borderline Symptom List – 23 0.35
13
- 34 - 3
Study 14163 - NET vs. Treatment As Usual (Stenmark, 2013)
Major Depression Diagnosis 0.14
5
- 54 - 6
Major Depression Diagnosis 0.47
18
- 54 - 1
Study 14191 - NET vs. Waitlist (Zang, 2013)
Impact of Event Scale – Revised, Chinese: Avoidance 1.71 *
45
- 22 - 0
Impact of Event Scale – Revised, Chinese: Intrusion 1.50 *
43
- 22 - 0
Impact of Event Scale – Revised, Chinese: Hyperarousal 1.78 *
46
- 22 - 0
General Health Questionnaire – 28, Chinese 1.56 *
44
- 22 - 0
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: Anxiety 0.77
27
- 22 - 0
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: Depression 1.33 *
40
- 22 - 0
Changes in Outlook Questionnaire – Short Form, Chinese: Positive Changes 0.70
25
- 22 - 0
Changes in Outlook Questionnaire – Short Form, Chinese: Negative Changes 0.80
28
- 22 - 0
Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire: Active Coping 0.41
16
- 22 - 0
Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire: Passive Coping 0.38
14
- 22 - 0
Adult well-being: Family functioning 0.05
1
2 (4) 56 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 4
Unfavorable: 0
-
Study 14180 - NET vs. Treatment As Usual (Orang, 2018)
Composite Abuse Scale: Total Score -0.19
-7
- 34 - 3
Composite Abuse Scale: Emotional Abuse -0.20
-7
- 34 - 3
Composite Abuse Scale: Physical Abuse -0.07
-2
- 34 - 3
Study 14191 - NET vs. Waitlist (Zang, 2013)
Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support – Chinese 0.36
13
- 22 - 0
Adult well-being: Parent/caregiver physical health 0.41
15
1 (1) 111 Favorable: 1
No Effect: 0
Unfavorable: 0
-
Study 14159 - NET plus Treatment As Usual vs. Treatment As Usual (Fan, 2021)
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index 0.41 *
15
- 111 - 0

*p <.05

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group. Effect sizes and implied percentile effects were calculated by the Prevention Services Clearinghouse as described in the Handbook of Standards and Procedures, Section 5.10.4 and may not align with effect sizes reported in individual publications.

Only publications with eligible contrasts that met design and execution standards are included in the individual study findings table.

Full citations for the studies shown in the table are available in the "Studies Reviewed" section.

Sometimes study results are reported in more than one document, or a single document reports results from multiple studies. Studies are identified below by their Prevention Services Clearinghouse study identification numbers. To receive a rating of supported or well-supported, the favorable evidence for a program or service must have been obtained from research conducted in a usual care or practice setting.

Studies Rated High

Study 14159

Fan, Y., Shi, Y., Zhang, J., Sun, D., Wang, X., Fu, G., Mo, D., Wen, J., Xiao, X., & Kong, L. (2021). The effects of Narrative Exposure Therapy on COVID-19 patients with post-traumatic stress symptoms: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Affective Disorders, 293, 141-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.06.019

Study 14191

Zang, Y., Hunt, N., & Cox, T. (2013). A randomised controlled pilot study: The effectiveness of Narrative Exposure Therapy with adult survivors of the Sichuan earthquake. BMC Psychiatry, 13, Article 41. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-13-41

Study 14170

Kangaslampi, S., & Peltonen, K. (2019). Changes in traumatic memories and posttraumatic cognitions associate with PTSD symptom improvement in treatment of multiply traumatized children and adolescents. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 13(1), 103-112. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40653-019-00255-3

Kangaslampi, S., Garoff, F., & Peltonen, K. (2015). Narrative Exposure Therapy for immigrant children traumatized by war: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of effectiveness and mechanisms of change. BMC Psychiatry, 15, Article 127. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-015-0520-z

Peltonen, K., & Kangaslampi, S. (2019). Treating children and adolescents with multiple traumas: A randomized clinical trial of Narrative Exposure Therapy. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 10(1), Article 1558708. https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2018.1558708


Studies Rated Moderate

Study 14158

Ertl, V., Pfeiffer, A., Schauer, E., Elbert, T., & Neuner, F. (2011). Community-implemented trauma therapy for former child soldiers in Northern Uganda: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 306(5), 503-512. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2011.1060

Study 14163

Stenmark, H., Catani, C., Neuner, F., Elbert, T., & Holen, A. (2013). Treating PTSD in refugees and asylum seekers within the general health care system: A randomized controlled multicenter study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 51(10), 641-647. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2013.07.002

Halvorsen, J., Stenmark, H., Neuner, F., & Nordahl, H. M. (2014). Does dissociation moderate treatment outcomes of Narrative Exposure Therapy for PTSD? A secondary analysis from a randomized controlled clinical trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 57, 21-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2014.03.010

Study 14180

Orang, T., Ayoughi, S., Moran, J. K., Ghaffari, H., Mostafavi, S., Rasoulian, M., & Elbert, T. (2018). The efficacy of Narrative Exposure Therapy in a sample of Iranian women exposed to ongoing intimate partner violence—A randomized controlled trial. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 25(6), 827-841. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.2318


Studies Rated Low

Study 14175

Morath, J., Gola, H., Sommershof, A., Hamuni, G., Kolassa, S., Catani, C., Adenauer, H., Ruf-Leuschner, M., Schauer, M., Elbert, T., Groettrup, M., & Kolassa, I.-T. (2014). The effect of trauma-focused therapy on the altered T cell distribution in individuals with PTSD: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 54, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.03.016

This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.
Study 14174

Morath, J., Moreno-Villanueva, M., Hamuni, G., Kolassa, S., Ruf-Leuschner, M., Schauer, M., Elbert, T., Burkle, A., & Kolassa, I.-T. (2014). Effects of psychotherapy on DNA strand break accumulation originating from traumatic stress. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 83(5), 289-297. https://doi.org/10.1159/000362739

This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.
Study 14157

Crombach, A., & Siehl, S. (2018). Impact and cultural acceptance of the Narrative Exposure Therapy in the aftermath of a natural disaster in Burundi. BMC Psychiatry, 18, Article 233. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-018-1799-3

This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.
Study 14188

Weinhold, S. L., Goder, R., Pabst, A., Scharff, A.-L., Schauer, M., Baier, P. C., Aldenhoff, J., Elbert, T., & Seeck-Hirschner, M. (2017). Sleep recordings in individuals with borderline personality disorder before and after trauma therapy. Journal of Neural Transmission, 124(Suppl. 1), S99-S107. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00702-016-1536-3

This study received a low rating because baseline equivalence of the intervention and comparison groups was necessary and not demonstrated.
Study 14182

Park, J. K., Park, J., Elbert, T., & Kim, S. J. (2020). Effects of Narrative Exposure Therapy on posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and insomnia in traumatized North Korean refugee youth. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 33(3), 353-359. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22492

This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.
Study 14776

Zang, Y., Hunt, N., & Cox, T. (2014). Adapting narrative exposure therapy for Chinese earthquake survivors: A pilot randomised controlled feasibility study. BMC Psychiatry, 14, Article 262. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-014-0262-3

This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.
Study 14184

Ruf, M., Schauer, M., Neuner, F., Catani, C., Schauer, E., & Elbert, T. (2010). Narrative Exposure Therapy for 7- to 16-year-olds: A randomized controlled trial with traumatized refugee children. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23(4), 437-445. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20548

This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.
Study 14774

Neuner, F., Schauer, M., Klaschik, C., Karunakara, U., & Elbert, T. (2004). A comparison of Narrative Exposure Therapy, supportive counseling, and psychoeducation for treating posttraumatic stress disorder in an African refugee settlement. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(4), 579-587. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.72.4.579

This study received a low rating because none of the target outcomes met measurement standards.
Study 14152

Alghamdi, M., Hunt, N., & Thomas, S. (2015). The effectiveness of Narrative Exposure Therapy with traumatised firefighters in Saudi Arabia: A randomized controlled study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 66, 64-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2015.01.008

This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.
Study 14179

Neuner, F., Kurreck, S., Ruf, M., Odenwald, M., Elbert, T., & Schauer, M. (2010). Can asylum-seekers with posttraumatic stress disorder be successfully treated? A randomized controlled pilot study. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 39(2), 81-91. https://doi.org/10.1080/16506070903121042

This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.
Study 14178

Neuner, F., Onyut, P. L., Ertl, V., Odenwald, M., Schauer, E., & Elbert, T. (2008). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by trained lay counselors in an African refugee settlement: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(4), 686-694. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.76.4.686

Onyut, L. P., Neuner, F., Schauer, E., Ertl, V., Odenwald, M., Schauer, M., & Elbert, T. (2004). The Nakivale Camp Mental Health Project: Building local competency for psychological assistance to traumatised refugees. Intervention, 2(2), 90-107. https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/entities/publication/12ce6b69-598b-4352-9ca4-c95af4296272

This study received a low rating because baseline equivalence of the intervention and comparison groups was necessary and not demonstrated.
Study 14153

Bichescu, D., Neuner, F., Schauer, M., & Elbert, T. (2007). Narrative Exposure Therapy for political imprisonment-related chronic posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(9), 2212-2220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2006.12.006

This study received a low rating because none of the target outcomes met measurement standards.
Study 14151

Adenauer, H., Catani, C., Gola, H., Keil, J., Ruf, M., Schauer, M., & Neuner, F. (2011). Narrative Exposure Therapy for PTSD increases top-down processing of aversive stimuli-evidence from a randomized controlled treatment trial. BMC Neuroscience, 12(1), 127. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2202-12-127

This study received a low rating because none of the target outcomes met measurement standards.


Studies Not Eligible for Review

Study 14154

Carleial, S., Natt, D., Unternahrer, E., Elbert, T., Robjant, K., Wilker, S., Vukojevic, V., Kolassa, I.-T., Zeller, A. C., & Koebach, A. (2021). DNA methylation changes following Narrative Exposure Therapy in a randomized controlled trial with female former child soldiers. Scientific Reports, 11, Article 18493. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-98067-9

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 14155 

Catani, C., Kohiladevy, M., Ruf, M., Schauer, E., Elbert, T., & Neuner, F. (2009). Treating children traumatized by war and tsunami: A comparison between exposure therapy and meditation-relaxation in North-East Sri Lanka. BMC Psychiatry, 9, Article 22. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-9-22

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 14156

Crombach, A., & Elbert, T. (2015). Controlling offensive behavior using Narrative Exposure Therapy: A randomized controlled trial of former street children. Clinical Psychological Science, 3(2), 270-282. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702614534239 

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 14160 

Forstmeier, S., van der Hal, E., Auerbach, M., Maercker, A., & Brom, D. (2020). Life review therapy for Holocaust survivors (LRT-HS): Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry, 20, Article 186. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02600-5

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 14161 

Gensichen, J., Schultz, S., Adrion, C., Schmidt, K., Schauer, M., Lindemann, D., Unruh, N., Kosilek, R. P., Schneider, A., Scherer, M., Bergmann, A., Heintze, C., Joos, S., Briegel, J., Scherag, A., König, H.-H., Brettschneider, C., Schulze, T. G., Mansmann, U., & Linde, K. (2018). Effect of a combined brief Narrative Exposure Therapy with case management versus treatment as usual in primary care for patients with traumatic stress sequelae following intensive care medicine: Study protocol for a multicenter randomized controlled trial (PICTURE). Trials, 19, Article 480. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-018-2853-7

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 14162 

Halvorsen, J., & Stenmark, H. (2010). Narrative Exposure Therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in tortured refugees: A preliminary uncontrolled trial. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 51(6), 495-502. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2010.00821.x

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 14164 

Hensel-Dittmann, D., Schauer, M., Ruf, M., Catani, C., Odenwald, M., Elbert, T., & Neuner, F. (2011). Treatment of traumatized victims of war and torture: A randomized controlled comparison of Narrative Exposure Therapy and stress inoculation training. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics, 80(6), 345-352. https://doi.org/10.1159/000327253 

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 14165

Hermenau, K., Hecker, T., Schaal, S., Maedl, A., & Elbert, T. (2013). Addressing post-traumatic stress and aggression by means of narrative exposure: A randomized controlled trial with ex-combatants in the Eastern DRC. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 22(8), 916-934. https://doi.org/10.1080/10926771.2013.824057 

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 14166

Hijazi, A. M., Lumley, M. A., Ziadni, M. S., Haddad, L., Rapport, L. J., & Arnetz, B. B. (2014). Brief Narrative Exposure Therapy for posttraumatic stress in Iraqi refugees: A preliminary randomized clinical trial. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 27(3), 314-322. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.21922 

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 14167

Hinsberger, M., Holtzhausen, L., Sommer, J., Kaminer, D., Elbert, T., Seedat, S., Wilker, S., Crombach, A., Weierstall, R., & Wyatt, G. (2017). Feasibility and effectiveness of Narrative Exposure Therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy in a context of ongoing violence in South Africa. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice & Policy, 9(3), 282-291. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000197 

Hinsberger, M., Holtzhausen, L., Sommer, J. Kaminer, D., Elbert, T., Seedat, S., Augsburger, M., Schauer, M., & Weierstall, R. (2019). Long-term effects of psychotherapy in a context of continuous community and gang violence: Changes in aggressive attitude in high-risk South African adolescents. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 48(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465819000365

Xulu, K. R., Womersley, J. S., Sommer, J., Hinsberger, M., Elbert, T., Weierstall, R., Kaminer, D., Malan-Müller, S., Seedat, S., Hemmings, S. M. J. (2021). DNA methylation and psychotherapy response in trauma-exposed men with appetitive aggression. Psychiatry Research, 295, Article 113608. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113608

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 14168

Jacob, N., Neuner, F., Maedl, A., Schaal, S., & Elbert, T. (2014). Dissemination of psychotherapy for trauma spectrum disorders in postconflict settings: A randomized controlled trial in Rwanda. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 83(6), 354-363. https://doi.org/10.1159/000365114

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 14169 

Jha, A., Shakya, S., Yinyin, Z., Pathak, N., Pradhan, P. K., Bhatta, K. R., Sthapit, S., Niraula, S., & Nehete, R. (2017). Identification and treatment of Nepal 2015 earthquake survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder by nonspecialist volunteers: An exploratory cross-sectional study. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 59(3), 320-327. https://doi.org/10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_236_16

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 14171

Köbach, A., Schaal, S., Hecker, T., & Elbert, T. (2017). Psychotherapeutic intervention in the demobilization process: Addressing combat-related mental injuries with narrative exposure in a first and second dissemination stage. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 24(4), 807-825. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.1986 

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 14172

Robjant, K., Koebach, A., Schmitt, S., Chibashimba, A., Carleial, S., & Elbert, T. (2019). The treatment of posttraumatic stress symptoms and aggression in female former child soldiers using adapted Narrative Exposure Therapy—A RCT in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 123, Article 103482. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.103482

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 14173 

Lely, J. C. G., Knipscheer, J. W., Moerbeek, M., ter Heide, F. J. J., van den Bout, J., & Kleber, R. J. (2019). Randomised controlled trial comparing Narrative Exposure Therapy with present-centred therapy for older patients with post-traumatic stress disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 214(6), 369-377. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.2019.59

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 14176 

Mundt, A. P., Wünsche, P., Heinz, A., & Pross, C. (2014). Evaluating interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder in low and middle income countries: Narrative Exposure Therapy. Intervention, 12(2), 250-266. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2014-29718-009 

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 14181 

Pabst, A., Schauer, M., Bernhardt, K., Ruf-Leuschner, M., Goder, R., Elbert, T., Rosentraeger, R., Robjant, K., Aldenhoff, J., & Seeck-Hirschner, M. (2014). Evaluation of Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET) for borderline personality disorder with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 11(3), 108-117. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2014-55266-002

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 14183 

Pearson, C. R., Kaysen, D., Huh, D., Bedard-Gillgan, M., Walker, D., Marin, R., & Saluskin, K. (2020). A randomized comparison trial of culturally adapted HIV prevention approaches for Native Americans reducing trauma symptoms versus substance misuse: The Healing Seasons protocol. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 95, Article 106070. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2020.106070

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 14185 

Schaal, S., Elbert, T., & Neuner, F. (2009). Narrative Exposure Therapy versus interpersonal psychotherapy: A pilot randomized controlled trial with Rwandan genocide orphans. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics, 78(5), 298-306. https://doi.org/10.1159/000229768 

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 14186 

Scheeringa, M. S., Lilly, M. E., Staiger, A. B., Heller, M. L., Jones, E. G., & Weems, C. F. (2017). Do children and adolescents have different types of trauma narratives and does it matter? Reliability and face validation for a narrative taxonomy. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 30(3), 323-327. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22190

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 14187 

Serpeloni, F., Narrog, J. A., Gonçalves de Assis, S., Quintes Avanci, J., Carleial, S., & Koebach, A. (2021). Narrative Exposure Therapy versus treatment as usual in a sample of trauma survivors who live under ongoing threat of violence in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials, 22(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-021-05082-2

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 14189 

Wilker, S., Catani, C., Wittmann, J., Preusse, M., Schmidt, T., May, T., Ertl, V., Doering, B., Rosner, R., Zindler, A., & Neuner, F. (2020). The efficacy of Narrative Exposure Therapy for children (KIDNET) as a treatment for traumatized young refugees versus treatment as usual: Study protocol for a multi-center randomized controlled trial (YOURTREAT). Trials, 21(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-4127-4

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).