Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents

Mental Health Substance Use Prevention or Treatment Promising

Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents (DBT-A) is an adaptation of DBT® designed for adolescents ages 13–18 with difficulty regulating their emotions. DBT-A aims to help adolescents “build a life worth living” by developing the skills needed to change patterns in their behaviors, emotions, thoughts, and interpersonal relationships. DBT-A’s approach is grounded in the idea that two seemingly opposing facts can both be true, most notably that the goals of therapy include both acceptance and change. A team of DBT-A providers, including therapists and skills trainers, strives to help adolescents both accept themselves and make changes in their behavior.  

 

DBT-A includes up to six key components: (1) individual therapy, (2) optional family therapy, (3) between-session telephone coaching for adolescents and their family members, (4) optional parent training sessions, (5) therapist consultation team meetings, and (6) multifamily group skills training. During individual therapy, adolescents and therapists establish target behaviors to increase or decrease (e.g., increasing self-respect and decreasing substance use) and identify alternative behaviors to use in specific situations. During optional family therapy, therapists aim to help adolescents resolve family conflict and crises and to orient family members to treatment goals and ways to create a supportive home environment. During the between-session telephone coaching, each adolescent and their family members receive in-the-moment support 24 hours a day to help adolescents avoid harmful behaviors and use new skills. During the optional parent training sessions, parents can access individual training or a separate group skills training module designed to reinforce their parenting skills. During the therapist consultation team meetings, therapists and skills trainers discuss any implementation challenges and receive support designed to improve their capacity to treat adolescents. 

 

During the multifamily group skills training component, skills trainers teach behavioral skills to groups of adolescents and their family members over five modules: (1) mindfulness, (2) distress tolerance, (3) emotion regulation, (4) interpersonal effectiveness, and (5) walking the middle path. The mindfulness and distress tolerance modules focus on building acceptance-oriented skills while the emotion regulation and interpersonal effectiveness modules focus on building change-oriented skills. In the mindfulness module, skills trainers emphasize accepting current circumstances and being present. In the distress tolerance module, skills trainers instruct adolescents on how to accept and tolerate painful situations without engaging in harmful behaviors such as substance use. In the emotion regulation module, skills trainers focus on helping adolescents learn to be less susceptible to painful emotions. In the interpersonal effectiveness module, skills trainers teach adolescents to ask for what they want, to say no when necessary, and to maintain respectful relationships with themselves and others. Finally, the walking the middle path module strives to help participants and their family members realize that there are multiple ways to view a problem and develop behavioral skills to deescalate and resolve family conflicts.  


DBT-A is rated as a promising practice because at least one study achieved a rating of moderate or high on study design and execution and demonstrated a favorable effect on a target outcome.


Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed: May 2024


Sources

The following sources informed the program or service description, target population, and program or service delivery and implementation information: the program or service manual, the program or service developer’s website, and the studies reviewed. 


This information does not necessarily represent the views of the program or service developers. For more information on how this program or service was reviewed, visit the Review Process page or download the Handbook.

Target Population

DBT-A is designed for adolescents ages 13–18 with difficulty regulating their emotions, including adolescents with characteristics associated with borderline personality disorder, suicidality, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, and substance use disorders.  

Dosage

Teams of therapists and skills trainers deliver DBT-A for between 24–52 weeks and can adapt the duration of the program depending on the adolescent’s needs. The six DBT-A components are designed to be delivered concurrently throughout the duration of the program.  

Therapists and adolescents meet once a week for individual therapy sessions, typically lasting 50–60 minutes.  

When therapists provide optional family therapy, they typically invite family members to join 3–4 of the adolescent’s individual therapy sessions. However, therapists can choose to divide the adolescent’s individual therapy sessions in half (individual therapy followed by family therapy) or to provide family therapy sessions at a separate time.    

Therapists hold telephone coaching calls with adolescents as needed between individual therapy sessions. Adolescents can call their therapists 24 hours a day. Family members can also participate in telephone coaching calls with a different provider (e.g., the skills trainer or a therapist who is not working with their adolescent) as needed between multifamily group skills training sessions. 

Two skills trainers typically deliver weekly sessions of 2–2.5 hours to groups of 3–5 families. Alternately, skills trainers can provide weekly group skills training sessions to groups of adolescents only, groups of family members only, or to each family individually. Skills trainers typically deliver the five skills modules over a 24-week period. Skills trainers start with 2 weeks of training on mindfulness and then provide 4 weeks of training on each of the other four skills (distress tolerance, emotional regulation, interpersonal effectiveness, and walking the middle path). Skills trainers also provide an additional 2 weeks of mindfulness training between each of these modules. For adolescents participating in 52 weeks of DBT-A, skills trainers complete a second cycle of the five skills modules. Skills trainers may offer maintenance sessions after participants have completed group skills training. 

When therapists provide optional parenting training sessions, each family typically receives 6–12 individual sessions.    

Therapist consultation teams, which include both therapists and skills trainers, meet weekly throughout the treatment period.  

Location/Delivery Setting
Recommended Locations/Delivery Settings

Therapists and skills trainers typically deliver DBT-A in clinical settings, including therapists’ offices, outpatient clinics, and inpatient and residential treatment centers. DBT-A can also be delivered in schools. 

Location/Delivery Settings Observed in the Research

  • Hospital/Medical Center

Education, Certifications and Training

Therapists are typically licensed mental health professionals. Skills trainers are typically psychotherapists, counselors, case managers, social workers, other clinical staff, or psychiatric nurses. Others who have received DBT training can serve as skills trainers, such as teachers, paraprofessionals, and volunteers. DBT-A providers should have experience working with adolescents.   

Therapists can go through an optional process to be a certified DBT clinician. The pre-requisites to become certified include having a graduate degree in a mental health-related field, a license to practice as an independent mental health practitioner, prior training in DBT and in mindfulness, and clinical experience delivering DBT individual therapy and telephone coaching. To receive certification, therapists must pass a written exam and an assessment of videotaped treatment sessions in which they deliver individual therapy. 

Program or Service Documentation
Book/Manual/Available documentation used for review

The following two resources are used to implement DBT-A: 

Rathus, J. H. & Miller, A. L. (2015). DBT skills manual for adolescents. Guilford Press. 

Miller, A. L., Rathus, J. H., & Linehan, M. M. (2007). Dialectical Behavior Therapy with suicidal adolescents. Guilford Press.  

Available languages

The DBT-A manual is available in English. 

Other supporting materials

DBT Certification Information 

For More Information

Website: https://cbtreatment.org/what-is-dbt/ 

https://cbc-psychology.com/treatment-wellness/treatment-programs/adolescent-dbt-program  


Note: The details on Dosage; Location; Education, Certifications, and Training; Other Supporting Materials; and For More Information sections above are provided to website users for informational purposes only. This information is not exhaustive and may be subject to change.

Results of Search and Review Number of Studies Identified and Reviewed for Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents
Identified in Search 26
Eligible for Review 1
Rated High 0
Rated Moderate 1
Rated Low 0
Reviewed Only for Risk of Harm 0
Outcome Effect Size Effect Size more info
and Implied Percentile Effect Implied Percentile Effect more info
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings
Child well-being: Behavioral and emotional functioning 0.58
21
1 (3) 103 Favorable: 3
No Effect: 0
Unfavorable: 0

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group.

Outcome Effect Size Effect Size more info
and Implied Percentile Effect Implied Percentile Effect more info
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings Months after treatment
when outcome measured
Months after treatment when outcome measured more info
Child well-being: Behavioral and emotional functioning 0.58
21
1 (3) 103 Favorable: 3
No Effect: 0
Unfavorable: 0
-
Study 13285 - DBT-A vs. Treatment As Usual (Lenz, 2018)
Symptom Checklist-90 – Revised: Anxiety 0.42 *
16
- 103 - 0
Symptom Checklist-90 – Revised: Depression 0.53 *
20
- 103 - 0
Symptom Checklist-90 – Revised: Interpersonal Sensitivity 0.78 *
28
- 103 - 0

*p <.05

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group. Effect sizes and implied percentile effects were calculated by the Prevention Services Clearinghouse as described in the Handbook of Standards and Procedures, Section 5.10.4 and may not align with effect sizes reported in individual publications.

Only publications with eligible contrasts that met design and execution standards are included in the individual study findings table.

Full citations for the studies shown in the table are available in the "Studies Reviewed" section.

The participant characteristics display is an initial version. We encourage those interested in providing feedback to send suggestions to preventionservices@abtassoc.com.


The table below displays locations, the year, and participant demographics for studies that received moderate or high ratings on design and execution and that reported the information. Participant characteristics for studies with more than one intervention versus comparison group pair that received moderate or high ratings are shown separately in the table. Please note, the information presented here uses terminology directly from the study documents, when available. Studies that received moderate or high ratings on design and execution that did not include relevant participant demographic information would not be represented in this table.


For more information on how Clearinghouse reviewers record the information in the table, please see our Resource Guide on Study Participant Characteristics and Settings.

Characteristics of the Participants in the Studies with Moderate or High Ratings
Study Location Study Location more info Study Year Study Year more info Age or Grade-level Age or Grade-level more info Race, Ethnicity, Nationality Race, Ethnicity, Nationality more info Gender Gender more info Populations of Interest* Populations of Interest more info Household Socioeconomic Status Household Socioeconomic Status more info
Study 13285 - DBT-A vs. Treatment As Usual
Characteristics of the Children and Youth
Tennessee, USA 2013 Average age: 15 years; Age range: 12-18 years 88% White/Caucasian
6% Black/African American
4% Other ethnic identities
2% Asian American
61% Girls
39% Boys
Participants met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnostic criteria for these primary diagnoses: 27% Depressive disorder, 12% Bipolar disorder, 44% Mood disorder not otherwise specified, 9% Anxiety disorder not otherwise specified, 6% Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, 3% Other diagnoses --

“--” indicates information not reported in the study.


* The information about disabilities is based on initial coding. For more information on how the Clearinghouse recorded disability information for the initial release, please see our Resource Guide on Study Participant Characteristics and Settings. The Clearinghouse is currently seeking consultation from experts, including those with lived experience, and input from the public to enhance and improve the display.


Note: Citations for the documents associated with each 5-digit study number shown in the table can be found in the “Studies Reviewed” section below. Study settings and participant demographics are recorded for all studies that received moderate or high ratings on design and execution and that reported the information. Studies that did not report any information about setting or participant demographics are not displayed. For more information on how participant characteristics are recorded, please see our Resource Guide on Study Participant Characteristics and Settings.

Sometimes study results are reported in more than one document, or a single document reports results from multiple studies. Studies are identified below by their Prevention Services Clearinghouse study identification numbers. To receive a rating of supported or well-supported, the favorable evidence for a program or service must have been obtained from research conducted in a usual care or practice setting.

Studies Rated Moderate

Study 13285

Lenz, A. S., & Del Conte, G. (2018). Efficacy of Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents in a partial hospitalization program. Journal of Counseling & Development, 96(1), 15-26. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcad.12174

This study was conducted in a usual care or practice setting (Handbook Section 6.2.2)



Studies Not Eligible for Review

Study 13179

McCauley, E., Berk, M. S., Asarnow, J. R., Adrian, M., Cohen, J., Korslund, K., Avina, C., Hughes, J., Harned, M., Gallop, R., & Linehan, M. M. (2018). Efficacy of Dialectical Behavior Therapy for adolescents at high risk for suicide: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry, 75(8), 777-785. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.1109

Adrian, M., McCauley, E., Berk, M. S., Asarnow, J. R., Korslund, K., Avina, C., Gallop, R., & Linehan, M. M. (2019). Predictors and moderators of recurring self-harm in adolescents participating in a comparative treatment trial of psychological interventions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 60(10), 1123-1132. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13099

Asarnow, J. R., Berk, M. S., Bedics, J., Adrian, M., Gallop, R., Cohen, J., Korslund, K., Hughes, J., Avina, C., Linehan, M. M., & McCauley, E. (2021). Dialectical Behavior Therapy for suicidal self-harming youth: Emotion regulation, mechanisms, and mediators. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 60(9), 1105-1115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2021.01.016

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 13184

Andreasson, K., Krogh, J., Wenneberg, C., Jessen, H. K. L., Krakauer, K., Gluud, C., Thomsen, R. R., Randers, L., & Nordentoft, M. (2016). Effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy versus collaborative assessment and management of suicidality treatment for reduction of self‐harm in adults with borderline personality traits and disorder — A randomized observer‐blinded clinical trial. Depression and Anxiety, 33(6), 520-530. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22472

Andreasson, K., Krogh, J., Rosenbaum, B., Gluud, C., Jobes, D. A., & Nordentoft, M. (2014). The DiaS trial: Dialectical Behavior Therapy versus collaborative assessment and management of suicidality on self-harm in patients with a recent suicide attempt and borderline personality disorder traits - Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 15, Article 194. https://doi.org/10.1186/1745-6215-15-194

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 13185

Anestis, J. C., Charles, N. E., Lee-Rowland, L. M., Barry, C. T., & Gratz, K. L. (2020). Implementing Dialectical Behavior Therapy skills training with at-risk male youth in a military-style residential program. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 27(2), 169-183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2019.07.001

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 13222

Courtney-Seidler, E. A., Burns, K., Zilber, I., & Miller, A. L. (2014). Adolescent suicide and self-injury: Deepening the understanding of the biosocial theory and applying Dialectical Behavior Therapy. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 9(3), 35-40. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0101638

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4)

Study 13246

Gillespie, C., Joyce, M., Flynn, D., & Corcoran, P. (2019). Dialectical Behaviour Therapy for adolescents: A comparison of 16‐week and 24‐week programmes delivered in a public community setting. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 24(3), 266-273. https://doi.org/10.1111/camh.12325

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4)

Study 13247

Goldstein, T. R., Fersch-Podrat, R. K., Rivera, M., Axelson, D. A., Merranko, J., Yu, H., Brent, D. A., & Birmaher, B. (2015). Dialectical Behavior Therapy for adolescents with bipolar disorder: Results from a pilot randomized trial. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 25(2), 140-149. https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2013.0145

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 13252

Mehlum, L., Tormoen, A. J., Ramberg, M., Haga, E., Diep, L. M., Laberg, S., Larsson, B. S., Stanley, B. H., Miller, A. L., Sund, A. M., & Groholt, B. (2014). Dialectical Behavior Therapy for adolescents with repeated suicidal and self-harming behavior: A randomized trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(10), 1082-1091. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2014.07.003

Mehlum, L., Ramberg, M., Tormoen, A. J., Haga, E., Diep, L. M., Stanley, B. H., Miller, A. L., Sund, A. M., & Groholt, B. (2016). Dialectical Behavior Therapy compared with enhanced usual care for adolescents with repeated suicidal and self-harming behavior: Outcomes over a one-year follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 55(4), 295-300. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2016.01.005

Ramleth, R.-K., Groholt, B., Diep, L. M., Walby, F. A., & Mehlum, L. (2017). The impact of borderline personality disorder and sub-threshold borderline personality disorder on the course of self-reported and clinician-rated depression in self-harming adolescents. Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation, 4, Article 22. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40479-017-0073-5

Haga, E., Aas, E., Groholt, B., Tørmoen, A. J., & Mehlum, L. (2018). Cost-effectiveness of Dialectical Behaviour Therapy vs. enhanced usual care in the treatment of adolescents with self-harm. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 12, Article 22. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13034-018-0227-2

Mehlum, L., Ramleth, R.-K., Tormoen, A. J., Haga, E., Diep, L. M., Stanley, B. H., Miller, A. L., Larsson, B., Sund, A. M., & Groholt, B. (2019). Long term effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy versus enhanced usual care for adolescents with self-harming and suicidal behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 60(10), 1112-1122. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13077

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 13253

Han, J., McGillivray, L., Wong, Q. J., Werner-Seidler, A., Wong, I., Calear, A., Christensen, H., & Torok, M. (2020). A mobile health intervention (LifeBuoy App) to help young people manage suicidal thoughts: Protocol for a mixed-methods randomized controlled trial. JMIR Research Protocols, 9(10), Article e23655. https://doi.org/10.2196/23655

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 13256

Henderson, J. L., Brownlie, E. B., McMain, S., Chaim, G., Wolfe, D. A., Rush, B., Boritz, T., & Beitchman, J. H. (2019). Enhancing prevention and intervention for youth concurrent mental health and substance use disorders: The Research and Action for Teens study. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 13(1), 110-119. https://doi.org/10.1111/eip.12458

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4)

Study 13260

James, A. C., Winmill, L., Anderson, C., & Alfoadari, K. (2011). A preliminary study of an extension of a community Dialectic Behaviour Therapy (DBT) programme to adolescents in the looked after care system. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 16(1), 9-13. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-3588.2010.00571.x

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4)

Study 13263

Kaess, M., Koenig, J., Bauer, S., Moessner, M., Fischer-Waldschmidt, G., Mattern, M., Herpertz, S. C., Resch, F., Brown, R., In-Albon, T., Koelch, M., Plener, P. L., Schmahl, C., & Edinger, A. (2019). Self-injury: Treatment, Assessment, Recovery (STAR): Online intervention for adolescent non-suicidal self-injury - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 20(1), Article 425. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-019-3501-6

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 13265

Kamody, R. C., Thurston, I. B., & Burton, E. T. (2020). Acceptance-based skill acquisition and cognitive reappraisal in a culturally responsive treatment for binge eating in adolescence. Eating Disorders, 28(2), 184-201. https://doi.org/10.1080/10640266.2020.1731055

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4)

Study 13266

Katz, L. Y., Cox, B. J., Gunasekara, S., & Miller, A. L. (2004). Feasibility of Dialectical Behavior Therapy for suicidal adolescent inpatients. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(3), 276-282. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200403000-00008

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 13296

Lynk, M., McCay, E., Carter, C., Aiello, A., & Donald, F. (2015). Engaging street-involved youth in Dialectical Behaviour Therapy: A secondary analysis. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 24(2), 116-122. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4558982/

This study is ineligible for review because it does not report program or service impacts on an eligible target outcome (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.5).

Study 13302

McCay, E., Carter, C., Aiello, A., Quesnel, S., Langley, J., Hwang, S., Beanlands, H., Cooper, L., Howes, C., Johansson, B., MacLaurin, B., Hughes, J., & Karabanow, J. (2015). Dialectical Behavior Therapy as a catalyst for change in street-involved youth: A mixed methods study. Children & Youth Services Review, 58, 187-199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2015.09.021

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 13304

Meyer, J., Ramklint, M., Hallerbäck, M. U., Loof, M., & Isaksson, J. (2019). Evaluation of a structured skills training group for adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - study protocol of a randomised controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry, 19(1), Article 171. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-019-2133-4

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 13305

Miller, A. L. (1999). Dialectical Behavior Therapy: A new treatment approach for suicidal adolescents. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 53(3), 413-417. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.psychotherapy.1999.53.3.413

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4)

Study 13309

Moen, R., Freitag, M., Miller, M., Lee, S., Romine, A., Song, S., Adityanjee, A., & Schulz, S. C. (2012). Efficacy of extended-release divalproex combined with "condensed" Dialectical Behavior Therapy for individuals with borderline personality disorder. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 24(4), 255-260. https://experts.umn.edu/en/publications/efficacy-of-extended-release-divalproex-combined-with-condensed-d

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4)

Study 13333

Rathus, J. H., & Miller, A. L. (2002). Dialectical Behavior Therapy adapted for suicidal adolescents. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 32(2), 146-157. https://doi.org/10.1521/suli.32.2.146.24399

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 13347

Saito, E., Tebbett-Mock, A. A., & McGee, M. (2020). Dialectical Behavior Therapy decreases depressive symptoms among adolescents in an acute-care inpatient unit. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 30(4), 244-249. https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2019.0149

Tebbett-Mock, A. A., Saito, E., McGee, M., Woloszyn, P., & Venuti, M. (2020). Efficacy of Dialectical Behavior Therapy versus treatment as usual for acute-care inpatient adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 59(1), 149-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2019.01.020

Tebbett-Mock, A. A., McGee, M., & Saito, E. (2021). Efficacy and sustainability of Dialectical Behaviour Therapy for inpatient adolescents: A follow-up study. General Psychiatry, 34(4), Article e100452. https://doi.org/10.1136/gpsych-2020-100452

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 13350

Santamarina, P., Blanco, I. M., Picado, M., Font, E., Moreno, E., Martínez, E., Linan, A. M., & Romero, S. (2017). 3.65 Dialectical Behavior Therapy versus supportive therapy for adolescents with suicidal behavior: A randomized-controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 56(10, Suppl.), S226-S227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2017.09.213

Santamarina-Perez, P., Mendez, I., Singh, M. K., Berk, M., Picado, M., Font, E., Moreno, E., Martínez, E., Morer, A., Borràs, R., Cosi, A., & Romero, S. (2020). Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy for adolescents with a high risk of suicide in a community clinic: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 50(3), 652-667. https://doi.org/10.1111/sltb.12612

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 13360

Swales, M., Hibbs, R. A. B., Bryning, L., & Hastings, R. P. (2016). Health related quality of life for young people receiving Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT): A routine outcome-monitoring pilot. SpringerPlus, 5(1), Article 1137. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-2826-9

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4)

Study 13382

Yang, X., Liu, D., Wang, Y., Chen, Y., Chen, W., Yang, C., Zhang, P., Ding, S., & Zhang, X. (2020). Effectiveness of Zhong-Yong thinking based Dialectical Behavior Therapy group skills training versus supportive group therapy for lowering suicidal risks in Chinese young adults: A randomized controlled trial with a 6-month follow-up. Brain and Behavior, 10(6), Article e01621. https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1621

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 13384

Zargar, F., Haghshenas, N., Rajabi, F., & Tarrahi, M. J. (2019). Effectiveness of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy on executive function, emotional control and severity of symptoms in patients with bipolar I disorder. Advanced Biomedical Research, 8(1), 59. https://doi.org/10.4103/abr.abr_42_19

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 13385

Zimmermann, R., Krause, M., Weise, S., Schenk, N., Fürer, L., Schrobildgen, C., Schluter-Müller, S., Valdes, N., Koenig, J., Kaess, M., & Schmeck, K. (2018). A design for process-outcome psychotherapy research in adolescents with borderline personality pathology. Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications, 12, 182-191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conctc.2018.10.007

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).