Triple P – Positive Parenting Program – Self-Directed (Level 4)

Mental Health In-home Parent Skill-Based Promising

Triple P – Positive Parenting Program – Self-Directed (Level 4) (“Triple P Self-Directed”) is a self-help parenting intervention for families with children up to 12 years. Triple P Self-Directed is most suitable for families who live in rural or remote areas or who want help without direct contact with a practitioner. Parents use a workbook to complete readings and practice tasks. These activities are designed to teach parents how to manage children’s behavior, provide supervision, and educate their child.


Triple P – Positive Parenting Program – Self-Directed (Level 4) is rated as a promising practice because at least one study achieved a rating of moderate or high on study design and execution and demonstrated a favorable effect on a target outcome.


Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed: Aug 2020


Sources

The program or service description, target population, and program or service delivery and implementation information was informed by the following sources: the California Evidence-based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare, the Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness review, the program or service developer’s website, the program or service manual, and the studies reviewed.

 

Date Program/Service Description Last Updated: May 2024


This information does not necessarily represent the views of the program or service developers. For more information on how this program or service was reviewed, visit the Review Process page or download the Handbook.

Target Population

Triple P – Self-Directed serves families with children up to 12 years. Triple P – Self-Directed is most suitable for families who live in rural or remote areas or who want help without direct contact with a practitioner.

Dosage

Triple P – Self-Directed can be completed by parents over a 10-week period.

Location/Delivery Setting
Recommended Locations/Delivery Settings

Triple P – Self-Directed provides parents with a workbook that they use to complete readings and practice tasks.

Location/Delivery Settings Observed in the Research

  • Home
  • Phone consultations

Education, Certifications and Training

There are no education, certification, or training requirements because Triple P – Self-Directed is self-directed by the parent.  

Program or Service Documentation
Book/Manual/Available documentation used for review

Markie-Dadds, C., Sanders, M. R., & Turner, K. M. T. (2010). Every parent’s self-help workbook (3rd ed.). Triple P International Pty Ltd.

Available languages

Triple P Self-Directed parent resources are available in English, Dutch, German, and Romanian.

For More Information

Website: https://www.triplep.net/glo-en/home/

Phone: 803-451-2278

Email: contact.us@triplep.net


Note: The details on Dosage; Location; Education, Certifications, and Training; Other Supporting Materials; and For More Information sections above are provided to website users for informational purposes only. This information is not exhaustive and may be subject to change.

Results of Search and Review Number of Studies Identified and Reviewed for Triple P – Positive Parenting Program – Self-Directed (Level 4)
Identified in Search 17
Eligible for Review 4
Rated High 0
Rated Moderate 3
Rated Low 1
Reviewed Only for Risk of Harm 0
Outcome Effect Size Effect Size more info
and Implied Percentile Effect Implied Percentile Effect more info
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings
Child well-being: Behavioral and emotional functioning 0.47
18
3 (10) 238 Favorable: 5
No Effect: 5
Unfavorable: 0
Adult well-being: Positive parenting practices 0.29
11
3 (15) 238 Favorable: 6
No Effect: 9
Unfavorable: 0
Adult well-being: Parent/caregiver mental or emotional health 0.21
8
3 (10) 234 Favorable: 1
No Effect: 9
Unfavorable: 0

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group.

Outcome Effect Size Effect Size more info
and Implied Percentile Effect Implied Percentile Effect more info
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings Months after treatment
when outcome measured
Months after treatment when outcome measured more info
Child well-being: Behavioral and emotional functioning 0.47
18
3 (10) 238 Favorable: 5
No Effect: 5
Unfavorable: 0
-
Study 10756 - Telephone-Assisted Self-Directed Triple P Parent Training (SDPT + T) vs. Waitlist (WL) Control (Hahlweg, 2008 - Not conducted in a usual care or practice setting)
Child Behavior Checklist: Externalizing Problems (Mother Report) 0.66 *
24
- 63 - 0
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Total Score (Mother Report) 0.80 *
28
- 63 - 0
Child Behavior Checklist: Externalizing Problems (Father Report) 0.66
24
- 34 - 0
Child Behavior Checklist: Total Problem Behavior (Father Report) 0.43
16
- 34 - 0
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Total Score (Father Report) 0.22
8
- 34 - 0
Study 10766 - Self-Directed Triple P (SD) vs. Waitlist (WL) Control (Markie-Dadds, 2006)
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Problem Scale 1.04 *
35
- 43 - 0
Parent Daily Report: Target Behaviour Score 0.98 *
33
- 43 - 0
Study 10776 - Self-Directed Behavioral Family Intervention (BFI) Triple P vs. Waitlist Control (Sanders, 2000)
Revised Family Observation Schedule-III: Negative Child Behavior 0.02
0
- 132 - 1
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Intensity Scale (Mother Report) 0.52 *
19
- 132 - 1
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Intensity Scale (Father Report) 0.28
10
- 103 - 1
Adult well-being: Positive parenting practices 0.29
11
3 (15) 238 Favorable: 6
No Effect: 9
Unfavorable: 0
-
Study 10756 - Telephone-Assisted Self-Directed Triple P Parent Training (SDPT + T) vs. Waitlist (WL) Control (Hahlweg, 2008 - Not conducted in a usual care or practice setting)
Positive Parenting Questionnaire (Mother Report) 0.74 *
27
- 63 - 0
Parenting Scale: Total Score (Mother Report) 0.99 *
33
- 63 - 0
Parenting Scale: Overreactivity (Mother Report) 1.18 *
38
- 63 - 0
Parenting Scale: Laxness (Mother Report) 0.73 *
26
- 63 - 0
Positive Parenting Questionnaire (Father Report) 0.00
0
- 34 - 0
Parenting Scale: Total Score (Father Report) 0.53
20
- 34 - 0
Parenting Scale: Overreactivity (Father Report) 0.22
8
- 34 - 0
Parenting Scale: Verbosity (Father Report) 0.50
19
- 34 - 0
Study 10766 - Self-Directed Triple P (SD) vs. Waitlist (WL) Control (Markie-Dadds, 2006)
Parenting Scale: Laxness 0.17
6
- 43 - 0
Parenting Scale: Overreactivity 0.57
21
- 43 - 0
Parenting Scale: Verbosity 0.34
13
- 43 - 0
Parent Problem Checklist: Concern 0.18
7
- 43 - 0
Parent Problem Checklist: Intensity 0.72 *
26
- 43 - 0
Study 10776 - Self-Directed Behavioral Family Intervention (BFI) Triple P vs. Waitlist Control (Sanders, 2000)
Parenting Scale: Total Score (Mother Report) 0.37 *
14
- 132 - 1
Revised Family Observation Schedule-III: Negative Mother Behavior -0.08
-3
- 132 - 1
Adult well-being: Parent/caregiver mental or emotional health 0.21
8
3 (10) 234 Favorable: 1
No Effect: 9
Unfavorable: 0
-
Study 10756 - Telephone-Assisted Self-Directed Triple P Parent Training (SDPT + T) vs. Waitlist (WL) Control (Hahlweg, 2008 - Not conducted in a usual care or practice setting)
Dyadic Adjustment Scale-7 (Mother Report) 0.21
8
- 59 - 0
Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (Father Report) 0.13
5
- 34 - 0
Study 10766 - Self-Directed Triple P (SD) vs. Waitlist (WL) Control (Markie-Dadds, 2006)
Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-42: Depression 0.51
19
- 43 - 0
Parenting Sense of Competence Scale: Parental Satisfaction 0.92 *
32
- 43 - 0
Parenting Sense of Competence Scale: Parental Efficacy 0.46
17
- 43 - 0
Study 10776 - Self-Directed Behavioral Family Intervention (BFI) Triple P vs. Waitlist Control (Sanders, 2000)
Dyadic Adjustment Scale-7 (Mother Report) 0.08
3
- 132 - 1
Parent Problem Checklist: Total Score (Mother Report) -0.16
-6
- 132 - 1
Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-42: Total Score (Mother Report) 0.05
2
- 132 - 1
Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-42: Total Score (Father Report) 0.20
8
- 103 - 1
Parenting Sense of Competence Scale: Total Score (Mother Report) 0.28
10
- 132 - 1

*p <.05

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group. Effect sizes and implied percentile effects were calculated by the Prevention Services Clearinghouse as described in the Handbook of Standards and Procedures, Section 5.10.4 and may not align with effect sizes reported in individual publications.

Only publications with eligible contrasts that met design and execution standards are included in the individual study findings table.

Full citations for the studies shown in the table are available in the "Studies Reviewed" section.

The participant characteristics display is an initial version. We encourage those interested in providing feedback to send suggestions to preventionservices@abtassoc.com.


The table below displays locations, the year, and participant demographics for studies that received moderate or high ratings on design and execution and that reported the information. Participant characteristics for studies with more than one intervention versus comparison group pair that received moderate or high ratings are shown separately in the table. Please note, the information presented here uses terminology directly from the study documents, when available. Studies that received moderate or high ratings on design and execution that did not include relevant participant demographic information would not be represented in this table.


For more information on how Clearinghouse reviewers record the information in the table, please see our Resource Guide on Study Participant Characteristics and Settings.

Characteristics of the Participants in the Studies with Moderate or High Ratings
Study Location Study Location more info Study Year Study Year more info Age or Grade-level Age or Grade-level more info Race, Ethnicity, Nationality Race, Ethnicity, Nationality more info Gender Gender more info Populations of Interest* Populations of Interest more info Household Socioeconomic Status Household Socioeconomic Status more info
Study 10756 - Telephone-Assisted Self-Directed Triple P Parent Training (SDPT + T) vs. Waitlist (WL) Control
Characteristics of the Children and Youth
Braunschweig, Germany -- Average age: 4 years; Age range: 3-6 years -- 51% Boys
49% Girls
-- --
Characteristics of the Adults, Parents, or Caregivers
Braunschweig, Germany -- Average age of mothers: 35 years; Average age of fathers: 38 years; Age range: 22-54 years 94% German
6% Non-German
-- -- --
Study 10766 - Self-Directed Triple P (SD) vs. Waitlist (WL) Control
Characteristics of the Children and Youth
Australia -- Average age: 43 months; Age range: 2 to 5 years -- 63% Male
37% Female
-- --
Characteristics of the Adults, Parents, or Caregivers
Australia -- Average age of mothers: 32 years; Average age of fathers: 34 years -- -- -- --
Study 10776 - Self-Directed Behavioral Family Intervention (BFI) Triple P vs. Waitlist Control
Characteristics of the Children and Youth
Brisbane, Australia -- Average age: 41 months; Age range: 36-48 months -- 69% Male -- --
Characteristics of the Adults, Parents, or Caregivers
Brisbane, Australia -- Average age of mothers: 31 years; Average age of fathers: 33 years -- -- 21% Mother depressed (BDI > 20) --

“--” indicates information not reported in the study.


* The information about disabilities is based on initial coding. For more information on how the Clearinghouse recorded disability information for the initial release, please see our Resource Guide on Study Participant Characteristics and Settings. The Clearinghouse is currently seeking consultation from experts, including those with lived experience, and input from the public to enhance and improve the display.


Note: Citations for the documents associated with each 5-digit study number shown in the table can be found in the “Studies Reviewed” section below. Study settings and participant demographics are recorded for all studies that received moderate or high ratings on design and execution and that reported the information. Studies that did not report any information about setting or participant demographics are not displayed. For more information on how participant characteristics are recorded, please see our Resource Guide on Study Participant Characteristics and Settings.

Sometimes study results are reported in more than one document, or a single document reports results from multiple studies. Studies are identified below by their Prevention Services Clearinghouse study identification numbers. To receive a rating of supported or well-supported, the favorable evidence for a program or service must have been obtained from research conducted in a usual care or practice setting.

Studies Rated Moderate

Study 10756

Hahlweg, K., Heinrichs, N., Kuschel, A., & Feldmann, M. (2008). Therapist-assisted, self-administered bibliotherapy to enhance parental competence: Short- and long-term effects. Behavior Modification, 32(5), 659-681. doi:10.1177/0145445508317131

This study was not conducted in a usual care or practice setting (Handbook Section 6.2.2)
Study 10766

Markie-Dadds, C., & Sanders, M. R. (2006). Self-Directed Triple P (Positive Parenting Program) for mothers with children at-risk of developing conduct problems. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 34(3), 259-275. doi:10.1017/S1352465806002797

This study was conducted in a usual care or practice setting (Handbook Section 6.2.2)
Study 10776

Sanders, M. R., Markie-Dadds, C., Tully, L. A., & Bor, W. (2000). The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: A comparison of enhanced, standard, and self-directed behavioral family intervention for parents of children with early onset conduct problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(4), 624-640. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.68.4.624

Bor, W., Sanders, M. R., & Markie-Dadds, C. (2002). The effects of the Triple P-positive Parenting Program on preschool children with co-occurring disruptive behavior and attentional/hyperactive difficulties. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30(6), 571-587. doi:10.1023/A:1020807613155

Sanders, M. R., Bor, W., & Morawska, A. (2007). Maintenance of treatment gains: A comparison of enhanced, standard, and self-directed triple P-positive parenting program. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(6), 983-998. doi:10.1007/s10802-007-9148-x

This study was conducted in a usual care or practice setting (Handbook Section 6.2.2)

Studies Rated Low

Study 10787

Connell, S., Sanders, M. R., & Markie-Dadds, C. (1997). Self-directed behavioral family intervention for parents of oppositional children in rural and remote areas. Behavior Modification, 21(4), 379-408.

This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.


Studies Not Eligible for Review

Study 10741

Baker, S., & Sanders, M. R. (2017). Predictors of program use and child and parent outcomes of a brief online parenting intervention. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 48(5), 807-817. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-016-0706-8

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10744

Dahinten, V. S., Arim, R. G., Guèvremont, A., & Kohen, D. E. (2014). The case for using administrative data to examine a population-based parenting intervention. International Journal of Child Health and Human Development, 7(2), 115-124.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10745

David, O. A. (2014). The Rational Positive Parenting program for child externalizing behavior: Mechanisms of change analysis. Journal of Evidence-Based Psychotherapies, 14(1), 21-38.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10748

Doyle, O., Hegarty, M., & Owens, C. (2018). Population-based system of parenting support to reduce the prevalence of child social, emotional, and behavioural problems: Difference-in-differences study. Prevention Science, 19(6), 772-781. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-018-0907-4

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10749

Duncombe, M. E., Havighurst, S. S., Kehoe, C. E., Holland, K. A., Frankling, E. J., & Stargatt, R. (2016). Comparing an emotion- and a behavior-focused parenting program as part of a multsystemic intervention for child conduct problems. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 45(3), 320-334. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2014.963855

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10758

Jalali, M., Pourahmadi, E., Tahmassian, K., & Shaeiri, M. (2008). The effectiveness of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program on psychological well being of mothers of children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Journal of Family Research, 4(4), 353-368.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not available in English (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.3).

Study 10759

Jones, S., Calam, R., Sanders, M., Diggle, P. J., Dempsey, R., & Sadhnani, V. (2014). A pilot web based positive parenting intervention to help bipolar parents to improve perceived parenting skills and child outcomes. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 42(3), 283-296. https://doi.org/10.1017/S135246581300009X

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10765

Lundin, M., & Karlsson, M. (2014). Estimation of causal effects in observational studies with interference between units. Statistical Methods and Applications, 23(3), 417-433. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10260-014-0257-8

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10772

Morawska, A., Mitchell, A. E., Burgess, S., & Fraser, J. (2016). Effects of Triple P parenting intervention on child health outcomes for childhood asthma and eczema: Randomised controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 83, 35-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2016.06.001

Morawska, A., Mitchell, A., Burgess, S., & Fraser, J. (2017). Randomized controlled trial of Triple P for parents of children with asthma or eczema: Effects on parenting and child behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 85(4), 283-296. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000177

Morawska, A., Mitchell, A. E., Burgess, S., & Fraser, J. (2017). 'Effects of Triple P parenting intervention on child health outcomes for childhood asthma and eczema: Randomised controlled trial': Corrigendum. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 92, 107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2016.12.017

Morawska, A., Mitchell, A. E., Burgess, S., & Fraser, J. (2017). Fathers' perceptions of change following parenting intervention: Randomized controlled trial of Triple P for parents of children with asthma or eczema. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 42(7), 792-803. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsw106

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10774

Pickering, J. A., & Sanders, M. R. (2016). The protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a brief intervention for parents of children experiencing sibling conflict. Clinical Psychologist, 20(2), 86-93. https://doi.org/10.1111/cp.12051

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10777

Turner, K. M., Richards, M., & Sanders, M. R. (2007). Randomised clinical trial of a group parent education programme for Australian Indigenous families. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 43(6), 429-437. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1754.2002.00077.x-i1

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10778

Schilling, S., Lanier, P., Rose, R. A., Shanahan, M., & Zolotor, A. J. (2019). A quasi-experimental effectiveness study of Triple P on child maltreatment. Journal of Family Violence, 35(4), 373-383. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-019-00043-5

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10785

Zamani, R., Gahari, S., & Pourrahhimi, M. (2017). Effect of teaching positive parenting program to mothers on reducing behavioral problems in children with oppositional defiant disorder. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 208-213.

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible publication source (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.2).