Mental Health Does Not Currently Meet Criteria

BRAVE is a multi-media intervention designed for American Indian and Alaska Native youth ages 15–24 and aims to promote healthy social norms and cultural values to improve mental health. BRAVE uses text messages, videos, and small group activities to increase youth help-seeking behaviors through trauma-informed lessons. Lessons are designed to teach youth about suicide warning signs, encourage and destigmatize the use of mental health resources, connect youth with peers and trusted adults, and prepare youth to initiate difficult conversations.

BRAVE does not currently meet criteria to receive a rating because no studies met eligibility criteria for review.

Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed: Sep 2022


The program or service description, target population, and program or service delivery and implementation information were informed by the following sources: the program or service manual and the program or service developer’s website. 

This information does not necessarily represent the views of the program or service developers. For more information on how this program or service was reviewed, visit the Review Process page or download the Handbook.

Target Population

BRAVE is designed to serve American Indian and Alaska Native youth ages 15–24.


BRAVE can be delivered in three ways: (1) one 10–30-minute individual or group lesson with at least one youth, followed by text messaging for 8 weeks, which includes one role model video and three to six text messages per week, (2) one 45–60-minute group lesson with four or more youth, or (3) weekly 30–45-minute group lessons with four or more youth for 7 weeks. 

Location/Delivery Setting
Recommended Locations/Delivery Settings

For all three delivery options, facilitators typically deliver BRAVE in community settings, such as clinics, schools, treatment centers, and community-based organizations. BRAVE can also be adapted for virtual delivery for all three delivery options. For the first delivery option, participants receive weekly videos and text messages following the initial in-person or virtual lesson. 

Education, Certifications and Training

BRAVE has no education, certification, or training requirements.

Program or Service Documentation
Book/Manual/Available documentation used for review

Rushing, S. C., Stephens, D., Caughlan, C., Kelley, A., Bingham, D., Fatupaito, B., Gaston, A., Ghost Dog, T., Smith, P., Brown, D. L., McCray, C., Singer, M., & Peterson, R. (2021). BRAVE user’s guide. Northwest Portland Area Indian Health Board.

Available languages

BRAVE materials are available in English.

Other supporting materials

BRAVE Text Series Sign-Up Site

BRAVE Video Series

For More Information


Phone: (503) 228-4185


Note: The details on Dosage; Location; Education, Certifications, and Training; Other Supporting Materials; and For More Information sections above are provided to website users for informational purposes only. This information is not exhaustive and may be subject to change.

Results of Search and Review Number of Studies Identified and Reviewed for BRAVE
Identified in Search 2
Eligible for Review 0
Rated High 0
Rated Moderate 0
Rated Low 0
Reviewed Only for Risk of Harm 0
Sometimes study results are reported in more than one document, or a single document reports results from multiple studies. Studies are identified below by their Prevention Services Clearinghouse study identification numbers. To receive a rating of supported or well-supported, the favorable evidence for a program or service must have been obtained from research conducted in a usual care or practice setting.

Studies Not Eligible for Review

Study 14366

Stephens, D., Peterson, R., Singer, M., Johnson, J., Craig Rushing, S., & Kelley, A. (2020). Recruiting and engaging American Indian and Alaska Native teens and young adults in a SMS help-seeking intervention: Lessons learned from the BRAVE Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(24).

Rushing, S. C., Kelley, A., Bull, S., Stephens, D., Wrobel, J., Silvasstar, J., Peterson, R., Begay, C., Ghost Dog, T., McCray, C., Love Brown, D., Thomas, M., Caughlan, C., Singer, M., Smith, P., & Sumbundu, K. (2021). Efficacy of an mHealth intervention (BRAVE) to promote mental wellness for American Indian and Alaska Native teenagers and young adults: Randomized controlled trial. JMIR Mental Health, 8(9), Article e26158.

Wrobel, J., Silvasstar, J., Peterson, R., Sumbundu, K., Kelley, A., Stephens, D., Rushing, S. C., & Bull, S. (2022). Text messaging intervention for mental wellness in American Indian and Alaska Native teens and young adults (BRAVE Study): Analysis of user engagement patterns. JMIR Formative Research, 6(2), Article e32138.

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 14367

Rushing, S. C., Kelley, A., Hafner, S., Stephens, D., Singer, M., Bingham, D., Caughlan, C., Fatupaito, B., Gaston, A., Ghost Dog, T., Smith, P., Love Brown, D., & McCray, C. (2021). The BRAVE Study: Formative research to design a multimedia intervention for American Indian and Alaska Native young adults. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research (Online), 28(1), 71-102.

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).