Positive Indian Parenting

Mental Health In-home Parent Skill-Based Does Not Currently Meet Criteria

Positive Indian Parenting (PIP) is a parenting skills training program designed for American Indian/Alaska Native parents. The program aims to help parents use traditional indigenous practices to raise their children in safe, supportive environments and to develop parenting attitudes, values, and skills rooted in cultural heritage. PIP creates a pathway for parents to learn traditional indigenous parenting practices that have been disrupted by colonization, family separation, and forced assimilation.  


PIP includes eight sessions. Each session follows a two-part format, beginning with a lesson on traditional indigenous parenting practices followed by a group discussion on how to apply the practices. Lessons apply concepts from oral traditions including effectively communicating with children and using behavior management techniques to help children develop self-discipline. Lesson content is drawn from several tribes’ traditional practices. The program can be culturally adapted to include teachings from the local region.  

PIP does not currently meet criteria to receive a rating because no studies met eligibility criteria for review.

Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed: Dec 2022


The program or service description, target population, and program or service delivery and implementation information were informed by the following sources: the program or service developer’s website and the Healthy Native Youth website.  

This information does not necessarily represent the views of the program or service developers. For more information on how this program or service was reviewed, visit the Review Process page or download the Handbook.

Target Population

PIP is designed to serve American Indian/Alaska Native parents. 


PIP is delivered once per week for 8 weeks. Trainers can deliver PIP individually or with groups of parents. Trainers conduct introductory home visits with participating parents prior to starting the program. 

Location/Delivery Setting
Recommended Locations/Delivery Settings

PIP can be delivered in parents’ homes or in community settings.

Education, Certifications and Training

Child welfare personnel are the preferred PIP providers. A lead trainer from the National Indian Child Welfare Association (NICWA) or a NICWA-trained tribal facilitator leads the required 2–4-day training totaling 17 hours, which culminates in certification. The training content mirrors the eight PIP lessons and includes implementation approaches. 

Program or Service Documentation
Book/Manual/Available documentation used for review

The PIP Manual is implemented in conjunction with the PIP Fidelity Checklist 

Cross, T. L. (2022). Positive Indian Parenting. Honoring our children by honoring our traditions: A model Indian parent training manual (4th ed.). National Indian Child Welfare Association. 

National Indian Child Welfare Association. (2020). Positive Indian Parenting program fidelity checklist.  

Available languages

PIP materials are available in English. 

Other supporting materials

Program Overview 

Sample Training Agenda 

For More Information

Website: https://www.nicwa.org/about-pip/  

Phone: (503) 222-4044 

Email: training@nicwa.org 

Note: The details on Dosage; Location; Education, Certifications, and Training; Other Supporting Materials; and For More Information sections above are provided to website users for informational purposes only. This information is not exhaustive and may be subject to change.

Results of Search and Review Number of Studies Identified and Reviewed for Positive Indian Parenting
Identified in Search 1
Eligible for Review 0
Rated High 0
Rated Moderate 0
Rated Low 0
Reviewed Only for Risk of Harm 0
Sometimes study results are reported in more than one document, or a single document reports results from multiple studies. Studies are identified below by their Prevention Services Clearinghouse study identification numbers. To receive a rating of supported or well-supported, the favorable evidence for a program or service must have been obtained from research conducted in a usual care or practice setting.

Studies Not Eligible for Review

Study 14762

Sahota, P. C., Contreras, A., Kastelic, S., Cross-Hemmer, A., Ybarra Black, A., Cross, T., Personius, D. J., Pecora, P. J., Kinswa-Gaiser, P., & Around Him, D. (2022). Positive Indian Parenting: A unique collaborative study in the age of COVID-19. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research Journal, 29(2), 104-125. https://doi.org/10.5820/aian.2902.2022.104

This study is ineligible for review because it does not report program or service impacts on an eligible target outcome (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.5).