Functional Family Probation and Parole
Functional Family Probation and Parole (FFP®) is an adaptation of Functional Family Therapy (FFT) designed to provide comprehensive case management for families with children age 18 and younger involved in the juvenile justice system and on supervision in the community (i.e., on probation or parole). FFP aims to enhance motivation for change, strengthen family functioning, and reduce recidivism and out-of-home placements.
FFP interventionists include trained juvenile justice staff, such as probation counselors, parole officers, and other juvenile justice community staff. Interventionists deliver FFP to families in three phases. In the first phase, interventionists focus on increasing family engagement with the program and increasing the families’ motivation for change. In the second phase, interventionists connect families with community programs and resources, provide support to decrease families’ barriers to service participation and ongoing involvement in services, and maintain contact with families and service providers to monitor progress. In the third phase, interventionists help families generalize changes they have made while in the program to their everyday lives and to contexts outside the immediate family.
FFP® does not currently meet criteria to receive a rating because no studies of the program achieved a rating of moderate or high on design and execution.
Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed: Apr 2023
The program or service description, target population, and program or service delivery and implementation information were informed by the following sources: the program or service manual and the program or service developer’s website.
This information does not necessarily represent the views of the program or service developers. For more information on how this program or service was reviewed, visit the Review Process page or download the Handbook.
FFP is designed to serve families with children age 18 and younger involved in the juvenile justice system and on supervision in the community (i.e., on probation or parole).
Interventionists deliver FFP to families in-person over approximately 6 months, though service time can expand depending on the length of supervision. Frequency of meetings is based on risk and need, but typically occur weekly.
Recommended Locations/Delivery Settings
Interventionists can deliver FFP in-person in juvenile justice or community settings.
Education, Certifications and Training
FFP interventionists and supervisors must be part of an FFP certified site and must receive training in FFP from FFT LLC. Organizations interested in becoming an FFP site must first complete a certification application and receive approval.
FFP Training is delivered at the organizational level in three phases. The first phase, Case Management/Model Training, lasts 12–18 months and focuses on training FFP interventionists. This phase is typically conducted in groups of three or more interventionists and covers the core intervention model and how to use the FFP services system. The second phase, Supervision Training, lasts 12 months and focuses on training and supporting FFP supervisors. Supervisors attend an initial supervisor training followed by biweekly phone consultations and a 1-day follow-up training. FFP provides ongoing consultation and interventionist and supervisor replacement training based on need. The second phase supports the organization’s adherence and competence to the model and addresses community barriers. The third phase, Maintenance, includes annual training activities and monthly consultation services. The third phase ensures ongoing model fidelity, staff development, and interagency linking. FFP requires organizations to engage in maintenance activities to remain certified.
Program or Service Documentation
Book/Manual/Available documentation used for review
FFT LLC. (2008). Functional Family Probation.
FFP materials are available in English.
Other supporting materials
For More Information
Phone: (206) 369-5894
Contact form: https://www.fftllc.com/contact-us
Note: The details on Dosage; Location; Education, Certifications, and Training; Other Supporting Materials; and For More Information sections above are provided to website users for informational purposes only. This information is not exhaustive and may be subject to change.
|Results of Search and Review||Number of Studies Identified and Reviewed for Functional Family Probation and Parole|
|Identified in Search||2|
|Eligible for Review||2|
|Reviewed Only for Risk of Harm||0|
Studies Rated LowStudy 14735
Lucenko, B. A., He, L., Mancuso, D., & Felver, B. (2011). Effects of Functional Family Parole on re-arrest and employment for youth in Washington state: Executive summary (RDA Report 2.24). Washington Department of Social and Health Services.
Lucenko, B. A., He, L., Mancuso, D., & Felver, B. (2011). Effects of Functional Family Parole on re-arrest and employment for youth in Washington state: Technical appendix (RDA Report 2.24A). Washington Department of Social and Health Services.This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.
Darnell, A. J., & Schuler, M. S. (2015). Quasi-experimental study of Functional Family Therapy effectiveness for juvenile justice aftercare in a racially and ethnically diverse community sample. Children and Youth Services Review, 50, 75-82. https://doi/org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2015.01.013This study received a low rating because baseline equivalence of the intervention and comparison groups was necessary and not demonstrated.